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Ex auctoribus : M. Libro XVII. Ixxxii-iv Wooden tools gluing timber sawn sheets of wood. Total ; facts, researches and observations. Book XVII. Contents: the natures of cultivated trees. Vinearum ratio et arbusto- rum ne uvae ab animalibus infestentur. Ex auctoribus : Cornelio Nepote, Catone censorio, M. Epidio, L. Arrangenient of vineyards and plantations prevention of injury to vines from ; animals. Diseases of trees remarkable ; products from trees. Libro XVm.

De avena morbi frugum, remedia. H-Hii De summa fertiH- ; tate soH ;ratio saepius anno serendi idem arvum stercoratio. Contents crops, their natures. Oats xliv f. Ixii- Ixxiv Quid quoque mense in agro fieri oporteat de : papavere; de faeno, causae sterilitatum remedia; ; de messibus, de frumento servando, de vindemia et autumni operibus.

Ixxv f. Lunaris ratio ventorum ; ratio. Ixxvii Limitatio agrorum. Ixxviii-xc Pro- gnostica : a sole, a luna, stellis, tonitribus, nubibus, ignibus terrestribus, aquis ab ipsis tempestatibus ab ; ; animalibus aquatilibus, avolucribus, a quadrupedibus. Summa: res et historiae et observationes MMLX. Silano, M. Ixii- Ixxiv Agricultural operations proper to the several months poppies hay ; causes of various kinds of ; ; infertility remedies ; harvests, storage of corn, ; vintage and autunm operations.

Conditions of the moon, of the winds. Ixxvii Fixing of bounds of estates. Ixxviii-xc Weather-forecasts from the sun, moon, stars, thunder-clouds, mists, earth-fires, waters from the seasons themselves ; from aquatic animals, from birds, from quadrupeds. Total : facts, researches and observations.

De sparti natura quomodo perficiatur, vii-ix : quando primus usus eius. Quae sine radice nascantur et vivant quae xi-xviii ; nascantur et seri non possint misy, iton, geranion : de tuberibus pezicae ; de laserpicio et lasere : maspetum, magydaris ; de rubia de radicula. Ivi Ferulacea genera iv ; can- nabis. Ivii-lix Morbi hortensiorum; remedia: quibus modis formicae necentur; contra urucas remedia, contra cuUces; quibus salsae aquae prosint.

Ix Ratio rigandi hortos. Ixi-ii De sucis et saporibus horten- siorum de piperitide et Ubanotide et zmyrnio. Ex auctoribus Maccio Plauto, M. Book XIX. Contents i-vi Flax, nature and : remarkable properties of 27 specially good kinds of ; how grown and how made up ; earliest employment of awnings in the theatre. Ix JVIethod of watering gardens. Ixi f. Juices and flavours of garden plants ; pepperwort, rosemary, mint. Libro XX. Book XX. Subject medicines obtained from : garden plants : from the wood-cucumber 26, iii ii wild cucumber 27 iv snake cucumber or wild ; cucumber 5, v garden cucumber 9, vi pumpkin 11, vii gourd or somphus 1, viii colocynth 10, ix turnips 9, x vidld turnip 1, xi navews or swede of two varieties 5, xii f.

Ex auctoribus Catone censorio, M. Varrone, : Pompeio Lenaeo, C. Total drugs, investigations and observations. Libro XXI. Orpheus, Menander's Things service- ahlefor life, Pythagoras, Nicander. Book XXI. Contents the natures of flowers and: of flowers for garlands. Rose, 12 kinds, 32 drugs ; lily, 3 kinds, 23 drugs plant ; from an exudation narcissus, 3 kinds, 16 drugs. Time-series of birth of flowers ; garland anemone or phrenion xciv-ix 10 drugs ; wine-flower grass 6 drugs cultivated ; fennel 11 drugs , marigold 11 drugs , gladiohxs, hyacinth 8 drugs , lychnis 7 drugs , narcissus, pothos, 2 kinds, crocus, 2 kinds, periwinkle or dwarf laurel xl, 4 drugs evergreen grass.

Ux Herbarum genera per caules coronopus, anchusa, anthemis, phyllanthes, crepis, lotos. Ix Differentiae herbarum per foUa quibus : foUa non cadant quae particulatim floreant heUo- ; ; tropium, adiantum ; herbae quarum medicinae sequenti Ubro dicentur. Ix Plants distinguished by leaves evergreens plants flowering in sections : ; ; heliotrope, maideuhair plants whose use for drugs ; will be stated in the next Book. Ixvi Quibus flos antequam caules exeant, quibus caulis antequam flos, quae ter floreant.

Libro XXII. Ixvi Plants producing flower before stalk, stalk before flowers, thrice-flowering. Ixvii-Ixxi Gladiolus, 8 drugs ccrydalis ; asphodel or royal ; spear-grass asphodel-stalk or bulb rush, 6 kinds, ; 4 drugs ; cyperus, 4 drugs, cyperis, cypira, holo- schoenos. Ixxii Drugs from scented rush or teuchites Ixxviii-lxxxii Drugs from hazelwort 8, drugs from Gallic nard 8, drugs from phu grass ' ' 4 ; Syrian saffron-Ieas, 2 drugs, cviii pcsoluta, 1 drug.

Total, drugs, in- vestigationsand observations. Book XXn. Contents the importance of herbs. Ivi Contra conpositiones medi- corum. Contra leguminum bestiolas. Ex auctoribus iisdem quibus priore libro et praeter eos Chrysermo, Eratosthene, Alcaeo.

Ivi AVarning against doctors' mixtures. Drugs from various grains common wheat 1, wheat 1, chaff 2, : emmer 1, bran 1, arinca, rye-water 2 corre- ; sponding varieties of floxir 29 drugs pearl- ; ; barley 8 fine flour, pulse 1, paper flour ] ; alica 6 ; ; millet 6 ;Italian millet 4 sesauie 7 near-sesame 3, ; ; hellebore 3 barley 9, wildbarley Greek' Phoenician ; barley ' 1 pearl-barley 4 starch 8 oats 1 bread ; ; ; ; 21 bean 16; lentil 17; marsh-bean 3; eleUsphacon : or fragrant moss sage 13 chick-pea and small chick- ; pea 23 bitter vetch 20 lupine 35 winter-cress or ; ; ; erysimum Gallic vela ' 15 clary 6.

Ixxvii-lxxx ' ; Darnel 5, millet grass 1, oats 1, choke-weed or broom- rape 1. Protection against maggots in vegetables. Foam from beer. Total drugs, in- — vestigations and observations. Authorities as in preceding book, also Chrysermus, Eratosthenes, Alcaeus. Ixii-lxix Observations on pear trees, 13, on figs , on wild. Ixx-lxxv Mulberries 39 ;lip-salve or wind-pipe salve or all-heal 4 ; cherries 5, medlars 2, service- berries 2, pine-cones 13, almonds Ixxvi-lxxix Greek nuts 1, walnuts 24 antidote filberts 3, ; pistachios 8, chestnuts 5, caroes 5, cornel-cherry 1, arbutuses.

Ex auctoribus C. Varrone, Comelio Celso, Fabiano. Libro XXIV. Hesiod, Musaeus, Sophocles, Anaxilaus. Book XXIV. Contents Drugs obtained from : forest trees: ii-ix Egyptian water-Hly 6, acorns 13, holm-oak berry 3, oak-apple 23, mistletoe 11, acorns of glandiferous trees 1, Tvu-key oak 8, cork 2, beech 4. II, medic. Reed 18, papyrus reed 3, ebony 5, rhodo- l-lix dendron 1, sumach 2 kinds, 8 drugs mouth-heal , red sumach 9, madder 11, madwort 2, radicula or soapwort 13, dog's-bane 2, rosemary Ix-lxix Rosemary capsule 6, sabine grass 7, savin-tree 2, brookweed 2, cummin 11, Arabian thorn 4, white- thom 2, bear's-foot 1, acacia 18, rosewood or erysi- sceptrum or adipsatheum or diaxylon 8.

Ixx-lxxix Bai-berry-bush 2, pyracanthus 1, Christ's-thorn 10, hoUy 10, yew 1, blackberries 51 mouth-heal , dog-rose 3, Ida bramble 1 buckthorn 2 kinds, 5 ; drugs Lycium thorn 18, Persian gum 2, oporice 2. Achaemenis or horse's-mane, theombrotion or sem- nion, uncrushable herb, Ariana plant, theronarca. Libro XXV. Total: drugs, investigations and observations. Book XXV. Contents the natures of self-grown : plants ; value of plants. VI, med.

Discoverers of famous plants. Moly 3, shooting star 1, peony or pentorobus or glycysides 1, varieties of all-heal — Asclepion 2, HeracUon 3, Chironion 4, Centaurion or Pharnacion 3, iron-wort HeracUon 4, hyoscyamos or Apollo-plant or henbane, 2 kinds, 3 drugs ;hnozostis or maiden-hair or grass of Hermes or grass of Mercury, 2 kinds, 22 drugs; Achilles star-wort or all-heal of Heracles, our milfoil or king's-broom, 6 kinds, 3 drugs.

Grass of Mithridates 2, scordotis or water-germander 4, Polemonia or Philetaeria or thousand-virtues 6, Eupatoria 1. Milk drunk for herbal contents in Arcady. Ixx-xc Sulphurwort 28, dwarf elder 6 phlomos, our mullein 15 phlomides ; ; 2, phlomis or wild lychnis or thryalHs ; thelyphonon or scorpion-grass aconite 1 phrynion or neuras or ; poterion 1 water-plantain or damasonium or lyron ; 17 ; vervain 6 antirrhinum or anarrhinum or wild ; lychnis 3 eupha 1 pericarpum, 2 kinds, 2 drugs ; ; Hercules water-Hly 2 marsh crowfoot 1 ; colt's- ; foot or Hon-wort 3 hair-dye plant 1 ; hyssop 10 ; satyrion 4 gladiolus or sword-Hly 4 ; flea-bane or ; dog-wort or gold garHc or Sicilian grass or dog-fly 16 ; thryselinon 1.

Ex auctoribus : C. Libro XXVI. Total ; drugs, investigations and observations. Contents the remaining drugs by : classes. Ixxiii Acte sive ebulum, chamaeacte. Ix-lxix Chrysippus-grass 1, orchis or Serapia 5, ragwort 3, red ragwort 4, lappago- bur or molhigo 1, prickly bur 1, phycos, our sea- weed, 3 kinds, 5 drugs cattle-bur crane's bill or ; ; geranium or myi'tis, 3 kiiids, 6 drugs donkey- ; hunt or refreshment-plant 3, Ixxiii Danewort or dwarf-elder, ground Dane-wort.

Varrone, C. Total, drngs, investigations and observations. Contents the remaining kinds of : plants, drugs derived from them. John's-wort 6. John's wort and ascyroides 3. Ixi-lxx Cotton-grass or cudweed 6, hairy teasel 1, mouse-barley or aristis, black centaury, white plantain 3, hippophaeston 8, butcher's broom 1, humble-plant, grass of Ida 4, iso- pyron or phasiolon 2.

Ixxi-lxxx Wolf 's-milk 2, Hon's- leaf others call it rhapeion ' 2, alkanet 2, Hthosper- ' mon or exonychon or diospyron or grass of Hercules 2, stone-crop 1, arrow-poison 1, spotted dead-nettle or mesoleucium or leucas 3, St.

Mary's thistle 5 medion 3, mouse-ear or forget-me-not 3. Ixxxi-xc Mouse-hunter 1, nyma 1, water-snake 1, toothwort 1, othonna 1, onosma 1, St. Mary's thistle 5, goose-foot 4, wood sorrel 2, many-flowered crowfoot or frogwort 3. Summa : medicinae et his- toriae et observationes DCII.

Petricho, Miccione, Glaucia, Xenocrate. Different national maladies. Total, drugs, investigations and observations. Contents drugs obtained frora : animals. Ixxi De glutino taurino probando, et medicinae ex eo VII. Varrone, L. Remedies obtained from the hmiian vi-xix body against magicians drugs and observations ; ; derived from an adult male, 8 from a boy xx-xxiii ; 61 from a woman xxiv-xxxii from foreign animals ; — elephant 8, hon 10, camel 10, hyena 79, crocodile 19, crocodile's excrement 11, chameleon 15, hzard 4, hippopotamus 7, lynx 5.

Ixxi On testing bull-glue, and 7 drugs from it. Libro XXIX. Book XXIX. Contents: drugs obtained from animals. Libro XXX. Book XXX. Contents :drugs obtained from — animals concluded. Human sacrifice, when first prohibited by the senate the Druids of the ; Gauls kinds of magic magicians' view as to moles ; ; ; 5 drugs.

Varrone, Nigidio, M. Contents drugs obtained from aquatic : animals. The Marcian Spring, the Maiden Spring. Historical account of springs suddenly arising or stopping. Medicinal waters, mode of employ- ing, for what kinds of illnesses ; ditto sea-water, 29 kinds. Benefits of a voyage, 5. Remedy , against foreign waters ; 6 drugs from moss drugs from ; sands. Numae regis constitutio de piscibus.

Native soda, kinds of, prepara- tions and drugs from — observations ; sponges, 92 drugs from and observations —Total drugs, investigations and observations. Nature's supreme force in antipathy. King Numa's regulation as to fish. Total drugs,— : investigationsand observations. Contents the properties of the : metals. Gilding of silver ; touchstones for gold. Ivi-lviii de sile; qui primi sile pinxerint et qua ratione ; de caeruleo medicinae ex eo II.

Ex auctoribus Domitiano Caesare, lunio Grac- : chano, L. Pisone, M. Externis Theophrasto, Democrito, luba, : Timaeo historico qui de medicina metallica scripsit, Heraclide, Andrea, Diagora, Botrye, Archedemo, Dionysio, Aristogene, Democle, Mneside, Attalo medico, Xenocrate item, Theomnesto, Nympho- doro, lolla, Apollodoro, Pasitele qui mirabilia opera scripsit, Antigono qui de toreutice scripsit, Menaech- mo qui item, Xenocrate qui item, Duride qui item, Menandro qui de toreutis, Heliodoro qui de Athenien- sium anathematis scripsit, Metrodoro Scepsio.

Ivi-Iviii Of yellow ochre, who first used for painting and how. Steel blue drugs ; — made from, 2. Contents : i Copper metals. On bronze dining-couches on candelabra ; on temple ; decorations of bronze ; first bronze image of a god made at Rome ; on the origin of statues and the reverence paid to them. Ex auctoribus : L. Pisone, Antiate, Verrio, M. Libro XXXV. Book XXXV. Contents i-x Praise of painting, : Praise of sculpture. Shields witli sculptured figures, when instituted first when first set up in pubhc ; when private houses.

The commencement of in painting pictures ; in monochrome the first ; paiuters. Antiquity of paintings in Italy. Roman painters. Foreign pictures, when first valued at Rome. Artificial colours red ochre, 11 drugs from it; red chalk Lemnian ; qui primi? Colours used by painters of early dates. When battles of gladiators were first painted and exhibited. Contents the natures of stones.

Onyx, alabaster; 6 drugs there- from Parian marble, coral marble, AUibanda stone, ; Theban stone, Syene granite. ObeUsks obeUsk in Campus Martius serving as gnomon. Ix-lxx de pavl- ; mentis asarotos oecos : quod primum pavimentum ; Romae de subdialibus pavimentis ; Graecanica ; pavimenta quando primum lithostrotum : quando ; primum camarae vitreae origo vitri genera eius et ; ; ratio faciendi de Obsianis miracula ignium medi- ; ; ; cinae ex igni et cinere III prodigia foci.

Ix-lxx Pavements the Tesselated : Hall ; first pavement at Rome terrace pavements ; ; pavements in the Greek mode ; date of first mosaic pavement date of first glass ceihngs ; origin of ; glass its kinds and mode of manufacture ; obsidian ; panes remarkable uses of fire 3 drugs from fire ; and ash ; marvels of the hearth. Pisone, Q. FuU total facts, investigations : and observations. Book XXXVIL Contents i-x Origin of gems : : the tyrant Polycrates's jewel; Pyrrhus's jewel; the best engravers famous specimens of engraving ; the first coUection of signet-rings at Rome jewels ; carried in the triumph of Pompey the Great murrine ; vases, date of first importation extravagance ; connected with their nature ; nature of rock- ; crystal, drug from it extravagance in use of rock ; crystal.

Ixi-lxx Idaei dactyh, icterias, lovis gemma sive drosoHthos, Indica, ion; lepidotis, Lesbias, leucophthalmos, leucopoecilos, libanochrus, limoniatis, liparea, lysimachos, leucochrysos Mem- ; nonia, Media, meconitis, mithrax, morochthos, monnorion sive promnium sive Alexandrinum, myrrit-is, myrmecias, myrsinitis, mesoleucos, rneso- melas ; nasamonitis, nebritis, Nipparena oica, ; ombria sive notia, onocardia, oritis sive sideritis, ostracias sive ostracitis, ostritis, ophicardelos, Ob- siana; panchrus, pangonus, paneros sive panerastos, Ponticae genera IV, phloginos sive chrysitis, phoeni- citis, phycitis, perileucos, Paeanitis sive gaeanis; solis gemma, sagda, Samothracia, sauritis, sarcitis, selenitis, sideritis, sideropoecilos, spongitis, synodon- titis, S Ttitis, syringitis ; trichrus, thelyrrizos, thelycardios sive mucul, genera III , Tliracia tephritis, tecolithos ; veneris crines, Veientana; zathene, zmilampis, zoraniscaea.

Summa res et historiae et observa- : tiones MCCC. Varrone, actis triumphorum : Maecenate, laccho, Cornelio Boccho. Shape of precious stones ; method of testing ;natural properties compared in various countries products compared in ; — respect of price. Total, facts, investigations and observations. What is out- side it does not concern men to explore and is not within the grasp of the human mind to guess.

It is sacred, eternal, immeasurable, wholly within the whole, nay rather itself the whole, finite and resembling the infinite,'' certain of all things and resembling the uncertain, holding in its embrace all things that are without and within, at once the work of nature and nature herself. Martial V. It is madness, downright madness, to go out of that world, and to investigate what hes outside it just as if the whole of what is within it were ah-eady clearly known ; as though, forsooth, the measure of anything could be taken by him that knows not the measure of himself, or as if the mind of man could see things that the world itself does not contain.

This is shown first of all by the name of orb which is bestowed upon it by the general ' ' consent of mankind. To us who Uve within it the world gUdes silently aUke by day and night. Stamped upon it are countless figures of animals and objects — of aU kinds it is not the case, as has been stated by very famous authors, that its structure has an even surface of unbroken smoothness, Uke that which we observe in birds' eggs this is proved by the evidence : of the facts, since from seeds of aU these objects, faUing from the sky in countless numbers, particularly in the sea, and usuaUy mixed together, monstrous shapes are generated and also by the testimony ; — of sight in one place the figure of a bear, in another of a buU, in another a wain, in another a letter of the alphabet," the middle of the circle across the pole being more radiant.

For my own part I am also influenced by the TkeworWi agreement of the nations. Caelum, the' vault of the sky,' is really for cavilum, from cavus. Nec de elementis vddeo dubitari quattuor esse ea igneum summima, inde tot stellarum illos : conlucentium oculos proximum spiritimi quem ; Graeci nostrique eodem vocabulo aera appellant, vitalem hunc et per cuncta reriim meabilem totoque consertum huius vi suspensam cum quarto aquarum ; 11 elemento librari medio spatii tellurem. Rackham sic? H Muller : currente.

Thus the mutual embrace of the unUke results in an interlacing, the Ught substances being prevented by the heavy ones from flying up, while on the contrary the heavy substances are held from crashing down by the upward tendency of the Ught ones. In this way owing to an equal urge in opposite directions the elements remain stationary, each in its own place, bound together by the unresting revolution of the world itself and with this ahvays running back to ; its starting-point, the earth is the lowest and central object in the whole, and stays suspended at the pivot of the universe and also balancing the bodies to which its suspension is due thus being alone motion- ; less with the universe revolving round her she both hangs attached to them aU and at the same time is that on which they aU rest.

Upheld by the same The pianeta vapour between earth and heaven, at definite spaces apart, hang the seven stars which owing to their motion we caU planets,'" although no stars wander ' less than they do. In the midst of these moves the Thesun. Quapropter effigiem dei formamque quaerere inbecillitatis humanae reor. Taking into account all that he effeets, we must beheve him to be the soul, or more precisely the mind, of the whole world, the supreme ruHng principle and divinity of nature.

He furnishes the world with Hght and removes darkness, he obscures and he illumines the rest of the stars, he regulates in accord with nature's precedent the changes of the seasons and the continuous re-birth of the year, he dissipates the gloom of heaven and even calms the storm-clouds of the mind of man, he lends his light to the rest of the stars also he is glorious and pre- ; eminent, all-seeing and even all-hearing this I — observe that Honier the prince of Uteratm-e held to be true in the case of the sun alone.

To beUeve in gods without number, and gods corresponding to men's vices as well as to their virtues, Uke the Goddesses of Modesty, Concord, Intelhgence, Hope, Honour, Mercy and — Faith or else, as Democritus held,'' only two, Punishment and Reward, reaches an even greater height of folly. Frail, toihng mortahty, remembering its own weakness, has divided such deities into groups, so as to worship in sections, each the deity he is most in need of.

For this reason we can infer a larger population of celestials than of human beings, as individuals also make an equal number of gods on their own, by adopting their own private Junos and Genii while certain ; nations have animals, even some loathsome ones, for gods, and many things still more disgraceful to tell — of swearing by rotten articles of food and other things of that sort.

To beHeve even in marriages taking place between gods, without anybody all through the long ages of time being born as a result of them, and that some are always old and grey, others youths and boys, and gods with dusky complexions, winged, lame, born from eggs, Hving — and dying on alternate days this almost ranks with the mad fancies of children but it passes all ; bounds of shamelessness to invent acts of adultery taking place between the gods themselves, foUowed by altercation and enmity, and the existence of deities of theft and of crime.

For mortal to aid — mortal this is god and this is the road to eternal ; glory by this road went our Roman chieftains, by : this road now proceeds with heavenward step, escorted by his children, the greatest ruler of all time, His Majesty Vespasian, coming to the succour of an exhausted world. To enrol such men among the deities is the most ancient method of paying them gratitude for their benefactions.

That that supreme being, whate'er it be, pays heed to man's affairs is a ridiculous notion. Can we believe that it would not be defiled by so gloomy and so multifarious a duty? Can we doubt it? To her is debited all that is spent andcredited all that is received, she alone fills both pages in the whole of mortals' account and we are so much at the mercy of chance that Chance herself, by whom God is proved uncertain, takes the place of God.

Another set of people banishes fortune also, and attributes events to its star and to the laws of birth, holding that for all men that ever are to be God's decree has been enacted once for all, while for the rest of time leisure has been vouchsafed to Him. This belief begins to take root, and the learned and unlearned mob aUke o ffo marchinsr o on towards it at the double witness the warnings : drawn from hghtning, the forecasts made by oracles, the prophecies of augurs, and even inconsiderable trifles— — a sneeze, a stumble counted as omens.

This series of instances entanffles unforeseeinar mortahty, so that among these things but one thing is in the least certain — that nothing certain exists, and that nothing is more pitiable, or more presump- tuous, than man inasmuch as with the rest of hving! Hinc redeamus ad reliqua naturae.

But the chief consolations for nature's imperfection in the case of man are that not even for God are all — things possible for he cannot, even if he wishes, commit suicide, the supreme boon that he has bestowed on man among all the penalties of Ufe, nor bestow eternity on mortals or recall the deceased, nor cause a man that has Uved not to have hved or one that has held high ofRce not to have held it and — that he has no power over what is past save to forget it, and to hnk our fellowship with God by means of frivolous arguments as well that he cannot cause twice ten not to be twenty " or do many things on similar lines which facts unquestionably demonstrate : the power of nature, and prove that it is this that we mean by the word 'God.

Let us return from these questions to the remaining facts of nature. Nunc relicto mundi ipsius corpore rehqua inter 32 caelum terrasque tractentur. There is no such close alliance between us and the sky that the radiance of the stars there also shares our fate of mortality. When the stars are believed Asirorumy. But the heavenly bodies have a nature that is eternal — they interweave the world and are blended with its weft yet their potency has a powerful influence ; on the earth, indeed it is owing to the effects that they produce and to their brilliance and magnitude that it has been possible for them to become known with such a degree of precision, as we shall show in the proper place.

Let us now leave the frame of the world itself and The piand. The following points are certain: 1 The star called Saturn's is the highest and conse- quently looks the smallest and revolves in the largest orbit, returning in thirty years at the shortest to its initial station. Rackham quoque Harduin. The orbit of Jupiter is much below it and therefore revolves much faster, completing one rotation every twelve years.

The third star is Mars, called by some Her- cules ; owing to the proximity of the sun it has a fiery glow ; it revolves once in about two years, and consequently, owing to its excessive heat and Saturn's frost, Jupiter being situated between them combines the influence of each and is rendered healthy. HJJ, II. Further it surpasses all the other stars in magnitude, and is so brilliant that alone among stars it casts a shadow by its rays. Consequently there is a great competition to give it a name, some having called it Juno, others Isis, others the Mother of the Gods.

Its influence is the cause of the birth of all things upon earth at both of its risings it scatters a genital dew with which it not only fills the conceptive organs of the earth but also stimulates those of all animals. It completes the circuit of the zodiac every days, and according to Timaeus is never more than 46 degrees distant from the sun. The star next to Venus is Mei-cuiy, by some called ApoUo it has a similar ; orbit, but is by no means similar in magnitude or power.

It travels in a lower circle, with a revolution nine days quicker, shining sometimes before sunrise and sometimes after sunset, but according to Cidenas and Sosigcnes never more than 22 degrees away from the sun. Consequently the course of thcse stars also is peculiar, and not shared by those above- mentioned those are often observed to be a quarter ; or a third of the heaven away from the sun and traveUing against the sun, and they all have other larger circuits of full revolution, the specifieation of which belongs to the theory of tlie Great Year.

The first human being to observe all these facts about lier — was Endvmion which accounts for the traditional story of his love for her. We foi'sooth feel no grati- tude towards those whose assiduous toil has given us illumination on the subject of this luminary, while owing to a curious disease of the human mind we are pleased to enshrine in history records of bloodshed and slaughter, so that persons ignorant of the facts of the world may be acquaiuted with the crimes of mankind.

The moon then is nearest to the pole, and there- Themoon. Haec ratio mortales animos subducit in caelum, ac velut inde contemplantibus trium maxi- marum rerum naturae partium magnitudinem detegit non posset quippe totus sol adimi terris ; intercedente luna si terra maior esset quam luna. A the sun's magnitude variant gives ' is shown as third in the series, starting from the two others. Consequently the frontierbetween the moon and the other heavenly bodies is at the point where the air ends and the aether begins.

And these are the reasons why the moon wanes in the night-time but both of her wanings are irregular and not monthly, because of the slant of the zodiac and the widely varying curves of the moon's course, as has been stated, the motion of the heavenly bodies not always tallying in minute fractional quantities.

This theory leads mortal minds upward to Thesun. The ecHpse of the moon supphes indubitable proof of the size of the sun, just as the sun itself when it suffers ecUpse proves the smaUness of the earth. For shadows are of three shapes, and it is clear that, if the soUd object that throws a shadow is equal in area to the shaft of Ught, the shadow projected is shaped Uke a pillar and is of infinite length, but if the soUd body is larger than the Ught, the shadow has the shape of an upright spinning-top, so that it is narrowest at the bottom, and infinite in length as in the former case, while if the soUd is smaUer than the Ught the result is the figure of s cone narrowing down to end in a point, and this is the nature of the shadow observed during an ecUpse of the moon ; hence it is proved without any further possibiUty of doubt remaining that the sun exceeds the earth's size.

Marcello fuit, sed tum tribunus militum , sollicitudine exercitu liberato pridie quam Perseus rex superatus a Paulo est in concionem ab imperatore productus ad praedicendam eclipsim; mox et conposito volumine. The passage of Stesichorus ia not extant. The original discovery was made in Greece by Thales of Miletus, who in the fourth year of the 48th Olympiad b. Nunc confessa de iisdem breviter atque capitu- latim attingam ratione admodum necessariis locis strictimque reddita,nam neque instituti operis talis argumentatio est, neque omnium rerum afferri posse causas minus mirum est quam constare in aliquis.

It is tempting to rewrite this passage deos hominesqut vinxistis! Less than years ago the penetration of Hipparchus discovered that an ecUpse of the moon also sometimes occurs four months after the one before and an ecUpse of the sun six whereby ye have fettered gods and men! For the echpse of both sun and moon within 15 days of each other has occurred even in our time, in the year of the third consulship of the elder Emperor Vespasian and the second consulship of the younger.

This fact proves that the planets are of greater magnitude than the moon, since these occasionally become visible even on reaching 7 degrees' distance; but their altitude makes them appear smaller, just as the sun's radiance makes the fixed stars invisible in daytime, although they are shining as much as in the night, which becomes manifest at a solar echpse and also when the star is reflected in a very deep welL XII. Martis stella ut propior etiam ex quadrato sentit radios, a nonaginta partibus, unde et nomen accepit motus primus et secundus nona- genarius dictus ab utroque exortu.

Veneris stella et stationes duas, matu- tinam vespertinamque, ab utroque exortu facit a 1 a add. Afterwards they retire from contact with his rays, and make their morning or ' first stations in a triangle ' degrees away, and subsequently their evening risings opposite degrees away, and again ap- proaching from the other side, make their evening or second stations degrees away, till the sun ' ' overtaking them at 12 degrees obscures them this — is called their evening setting.

The planet Mars being nearer feels the sun's rays even from its quad- rature, at an angle of 90 degrees, which has given to his motion after each rising the name of first ' or second ninety-degree. Then they rise in the even- ing at the same distance apart, as far as the limits we have stated.

From these they pass backward to the sun, and disappear in their evening setting. The planet Venus actually makes two stations, morning and evening, after each rise, from the furthest " Brotier Martis stella proprio cursu bimestris est, hoo : est duobus mensibus signum unum pervagatur, binis ferme annis duodena cf. Eadem ab una statione ad alteram menses senos insumit : ceterae, Jovis et Saturni, vix quaternos.

Mercury's stations have too short a period to be perceptible. This is the system of the shining and occultation of the planets it is more complicated : from their motion and involves many remarkable facts, inasmuch as they change their magnitude and their and both approach the North and colours, retire towards the South, and suddenly are seen closer to the earth or to the sky.

And although our account of these matters will differ in many points from that of our predecessors, we confess that credit for these points also must be given to those who first demonstrated the methods of investigating them only nobody must abandon the hope that the : generations are constantly making progress. All these occurrences are due to a plurahty ofduetothree causes. Each planet has its own circle, and these are not the same as those of the firmament, since the earth between the two vertices, named in Greek pnles, is the centre of the sky, and also of the zodiac, which is situated on a slant between the poles.

Tertia altitudinum ratio caeli mensura, non circuli, intellegitur, subire eas aut descendere per profundum aeris oculis aestimantibus. Veneris tantima stella excedit eum binis partibus, quae causa intellegitur efficere ut quaedam animalia et in desertis mundi nascantur.

The result of this is that they appear to move slower and to be smaller when they are travelHng at the highest point of their circuit, but to be larger and travel faster when they have come nearer to the earth, not because they actually accelerate or reduce their natural motions, which are fixed and individual to them, but because Hnes drawn from the top of the arc to the centre necessarily converge like the spokes of a wheel, and the same motion at one time is perceived as faster and at another slower according to its distance from the centre.

Another reason of their elevations is because they have the points of their arcs highest from their — centre in different signs Saturn in the 20th degree of the Scales, Jupiter in the 15th of the Crab, Mars in the 28th of Capricorn, the sun in the 29th of the Ram, Venus in the 27th of the Fishes, Mercury in the 15th of Virgo, the moon in the 4th of the BuU.

A third explanation of their altitudes is explained by the dimensions of the firmament, not that of a circle, the eye judging them to rise or to sink through the depth of the air. Linked with this is the cause of the latitudes ofOrMtsoftf. The stars we have rJiMim to mentioned " travel through the zodiac, and the only thezodiac; habitable part of the earth is what lies beneath it all the other parts towards the poles are frost-bound.

Only the planet Venus goes two degrees outside the zodiac ; this is understood to be the reason that causes some animals to be born even in the desert places of the world. The planet Mercury diverges very widely from these, but without wandering over more than 8 of the 12 degrees of latitude of the zodiac, and these 8 not uniformly but two in the middle of the zodiac, four above it and two below it.

Then the sun travels unevenly in the middle of the zodiac between the two halves with a wavy serpentine course, the planet Mars over 4 degrees in the middle, Jupiter one in the middle and two above it, Saturn two like the sun. This will be the principle of the latitudes of the planets when setting towards the South or rising towards the North.

Most people have supposed that with this system agrees also the third mentioned above," that of their rising from the earth to the sky, and that this ascent also is made simultaneously ; but this is a mistake. To refute them it is necessary to develop an extremely abstruse argument that embraces all the causes mentioned.

Haec est superiorum stellarum ratio ; difficilior reliquarum et a nullo ante nos reddita. The reason for this must especially be given. When struck in the degree that we stated and by a triangular ray of the sun they are prevented from pursuing a straight course, and are hfted upward by the fiery force. This cannot be directly perceived by our sight, and therefore they are thought to be stationary, which has given rise to the term station. This occurs much more at their evening rising, when they are driven out to the top of their apsides by the full opposing force of the sun, and appear very small because they are at the distance of their greatest altitude and are moving — with their smallest velocity which is pi-oportionately smaller when this occurs in the highest signs of their apsides.

From their evening rise their altitude is descended with a velocity now decelerating less and less, but not accelerating before their second stations, when their altitude also is descended, the ray passing above thera from the other side and pressing them down again to the earth with the same force as that with which it had raised them to the sky from the former triangle. So much difference does it make whether the rays come from below or from above, and the same things occur far more in the evening setting.

This is the theory of the higher stars that of ; the rest is more difficult and has been explained by nobody before ourselves. As situated below the sun both have arcs that are the opposite of those of the other planets, and as much of their circle is below the earth as that of the planets mentioned before is above it and they cannot be further from it than they are because the curve of their arcs does not allow greater elongation there consequently the edges ; of their arcs put a hmit on a similar principle for each, and compensate for the dimensions of their longitude by the enlargement of their latitude.

But, it will be objected, why do they not reach 46 and 23 degrees always? As a matter of fact they do, but the explanation escapes the theorists. For it is manifest that even their arcs alter, because they never cross the sun accordingly when the edges have ; fallen on one side or the other into the actual degree of the sun, then the stars also are understood to have reached their longest distances, but when the edges are short of that, they themselves too are com- pelled to return with proportionately greater velocity, since with each of them that is always the extreme limit.

This also explains the contrary principle of their motions. The former travel backward from their morning to their evening station, the planet Venus from her evening to her morning station. But she begins to chmb her latitude after her morning rise, but after her morning station to ascend her altitude and foUow the sun, being swiftest and highest at her morning setting; whereas she begins to descend in latitude and decelerate after her evening rising, and to turn back and simultaneously to descend in altitude after her evening station ; on the other hand the planet Mercury begins to chmb in both ways after his morning rising, but after his evening rising to descend in latitude, and following the sun at an Interval of 15 degrees he stands motionless for almost four days.

Afterwards he descends from his altitude and proceeds back from his evening setting to his morning rise. And only this planet and the moon set in as many days as they have risen in ; Venus ascends in 15 times as many days as she sets in, while Saturn and Jupiter descend in twice as many, and Mars in actually four times as many. So great is the variety of nature ; but the reason is evident — bodies that strain up into the heat of the sun also have difficulty in desccnding.

It is true that each has its own special hue Saturn — white, Jupiter transparent, Mai-s fiery, Lucifer bright white, Vesper glaring, Mercury radiant, the moon soft, the sun when rising glowing and emend sexangulas Jorrtias to the singular, this clumsily ex- preased piece of geometry looks like an iuterpolation. For at one time there is a dense crowd of stars in the sky round the circle of the half-moon, a fine night giving them a gentle radiance, but at another time they are scarce, so that we wonder at their flight, when the full moon hides them or when the rays of the sun or the planets above-mentioned dim our sight.

But the moon herself also is undoubtedly sensitive to the variations of the strength of impact of the rays of the sun, as moreover the curve of the earth dulls their impact, except when the impact of the rays meets at a right angle. And so the moon is at half in the sun's quadrature, and curved in a hoUow circle in its trinal aspect, but waxes to full at the sun's opposition, and then waning exhibits the same configurations at correspouding intervals, on the same principle as the three planets above the sun.

Intervalla quoque siderum a terra multi indagare temptarunt, et solem abesse a luna undevi- ginti partes quantam lunam ipsam a terra prodiderunt. Pythagoras vero, vlr sagacis animi, a terra ad lunam CXXVI milia stadiorum esse collegit, ad solem ab ea duplum, inde ad duodecim signa triplicatimi, in qua sententia et Gallus Sulpicius fuit noster.

Consequently heavenly fire is spit forth by the planet as crackhng charcoal flies from a burning log, bringing prophecies with it, as even the part of himself that he discards does not cease to function in its divine tasks. And this is accompanied by a very great disturbance of the air, because moisture collected causes an overflow, or because it is disturbed by the birth-pangs so to speak of the planet in travail.

The penetrating genius of Pythagoras, however, inferred that the distance of the moon from the earth was 15, miles," and that of the sun from the moon twice that figure, and of the sun from the twelve signs of the Zodiac three times. Our fellow- countiyman Sulpicius Gallus also held this view. Stadium centum viginti quinque nostros efficit passus, hoc est pedes sexcentos viginti quinque.

Posidonius non minus quadraginta stadiorum a terra altitudinem esse in quam nubila ac venti nubesque perveniant, inde purum liquidumque et inperturbatae lucis aera, sed a turbido ad lunam viciens centum miha stadiorum, inde ad solem quinquiens mihens, eo spatio fieri ut tam inmensa eius magnitudo non exurat terras. The majority of writers, however, have stated that the clouds rise to a height of miles.

These figures are really unascertained and impossible to disentangle, but it is proper to put them forward because they have been put forward already, although they are matters in which the method of geometrical inference, which never misleads, is the only method that it is possible not to reject, were anybody desirous of pursuing such questions more deeply, and with the intention of establishing not precise measurement for to aspire to that would mark an almost insane absorption in study but merely a conjectural calculation.

Restant pauca de mundo. And when they have dared to guess the distances of the sun from the earth they apply the same figures to the sky, on the ground that the sun is at its centre, with the consequence that they have at their finger's ends the dimensions of the world also. The Egyptian calculation published by Petosiris and Nechepsos infers that one degree of the kmar circle measures as has been said just over 4g- miles at the least, one degree of the widest circle, Saturn's, twice that size, and one of the sun's circle, which we stated to be in the middle, the mean between the other two.

This computation is a most shameful business, since the addition of the distance of the zodiac itself to the circle of Saturn produces a multiple that is even beyond reckoning. A few facts about the world remain. Lydus, p. CIX, CV. Titus'3 5th consulship was in a.

The Greeks also give the name of bearded stars to those ' ' from whose lower part spreads a mane resembhng a long beard. Javehn-stars quiver hke a dart these ' ' ; are a very terrible portent. To this class belongs the comet about which Titus Imperator " Caesar in his 5th consulship wrote an account in his famous poem, that being its latest appearance down to the present day.

The same stars when shorter and sloping to a point have been called Daggers ' these are the ' ; palest of all in colour, and have a gleam hke the flash of a sword, and no rays, which even the Quoit-star, which resembles its name in appearance but is in colour hke amber, emits in scattered form from its edge. The Tub-star presents the shape of a cask, ' ' ' with a smoky hght all round it. The Horned star ' has the shape of a horn, hke the one that appeared when Greece fought the decisive battle of Salamis.

The Torch-star resembles glowing torches, the ' ' ' Horse-star horses' manes in very rapid motion and ' revolving in a circle. There also occur Goat comets,' enringed ' with a sort of cloud resembhng tufts of hair. Variant readings give th B. Moventur autem aliae errantium modo, aliae inmobiles haerent, omnes ferme sub ipso septentrione, aliqua eius parte non certa, sed maxime in candida quae lactei circuli nomen accepit. Aristoteles tradit et simul plures cerni, nemini conpertum alteri, quod equidem sciam, ventos autem ab his graves aestusve significari.

Seneca N. But Pliny is not speaking of the disappearance of comets. If the MS. Comets also occur in the winter months and at the south pole, but comets in the south have no rays. Planets and all other stars also occasionally have spreading hair. Cometes in uno totius orbis loco colitur in templo Romae, admodum faustus divo Augusto iudicatus ab ipso, qui incipiente eo apparuit ludis quos faciebat Veneri Genetrici non multo post obitum patris 94 Caesaris in collegio ab eo instituto.

Sunt qui et haec sidera perpetua esse credant suoque ambitu ire, sed non nisi relicta ab sole cerni, 1 est add. The only place in the whole world where a comet is worMp the object of worship is a temple at Rome. In fact he made pubhc the joy that it gave him in these words On the very : ' days of my Games a comet was visible for seven days in the northern part of the sky.

It was rising about an hour before sunset, and was a bright star, visible from all lands. The common people beheved that this star signified the soul of Caesar received among the spirits of the immortal gods, and on this account the emblem of a star was added to the bust of Caesar that we shortly afterwards dedicated in the forum.

Emicant et faces non nisi cum decidunt visae, qualis Germanico Caesare gladiatorium specta- culum edente praeter ora populi meridiano transcu- currit. Of these there are two kinds one sort are : called lampades, which means torches,' the other ' bolides missiles , — that is the sort that appeared at the time of the disasters of Modena. Cernuntur et stellae cimi sole totis diebus, plerumque et circa sohs orbem ceu spiceae coronae et versicolores circuh, quahter Augusto Caesare in prima iuventa urbem intrante post obitum patrisad nomen ingens capessendum.

Circa solem arcus 1 ardentes? Other simihir meteoric hghts are beams. Similar haloes occur round the moon and round the principal fixed stars. Opimio Q. Fabio coss. Porcio M'. Acilio, circulus rubri coloris L. Rutilio coss. Fiunt prodigiosi et longiores solis defectus, qualis occiso dictatore Caesare et Antoniano bello 99 totius paene anni pallore continuo.

Et rursus soles plures simul cernuntur, nec supra ipsum nec infra sed ex obliquo, numquam iuxta nec contra terram, nec noctu sed aut oriente aut occidente. Postu- mio Q. Mucio et Q. Marcio M. Porcio et M. Antonio P. Dolabella et M. Lepido L. Planco coss. Lunae quoque trinae, ut Cn. Domitio C. Fannio consulibus, apparuere. Quod plerique appellaverunt soles nocturnos, lirnien de caelo noctu visum est C.

Caecilio Cn. Papirio consulibus et saepe alias, ut diei species nocte luceret. It is also reported tliat once several suns were seen at midday at the Bosphorus, and that these lasted from dawn till sunset. Also three moons have appeared at once, for instance in the consulship of Gnaeus Domitius ' and Gaius Fannius. A Ught from the sky by night, the phenomenon usuaUy caUed night-suns,' was seen ' in the consulshipi of Gaius CaeciUus and Gnaeus Papirius and often on other occasions causing apparent dayUght in the night.

Valerio C. Mario consulibus. Scribonio consuli- bus. Existunt mari terrisque. Hactenus de mundo ipso sideribusque. In the consulship " of Gnaeus Octavius and Gaius Scribonius a spark was seen to fall from a star and increase in size as it approached the earth, and after becoming as large as the moon it diffused a sort of cloudy dayUght, and then returning to the sky changed into a torch this is the only record of ; this occurring.

It was seen by the proconsul Silanus and his suite. Also stars appear to shoot to and fro this invariably portends the rise of a fierce hurricane from the same quarter. Stars also come into existence at sea and on land. I have seen a radiance of star-hke appearance chnging to the javeHns of soldiers on sentry duty at night in front of the rampart and on ; a voyage stars aUght on the yards and other parts of the ship, with a sound resembling a voice, hopping from perch to perch in the manner of birds.

These when they come singly are disastrously heavy and wreck ships, and if they fall into the hold burn them up. If there are two of them, they denote safety and portend a successful voyage and their approach ; is said to put to flight the terrible star called Helena for this reason they are called Castor and Pollux, and people pray to them as gods for aid at sea. They also shine round men's heads at evening time this ; is a great portent.

AU these things adinit of no certain explanation; they are hidden away in the grandeur of nature. So much as to the world itself and the Atmosrhn? Infra lunam haec sedes, multoque inferior ut animadverto propemodum constare , infinitum ex superiore natura aeris, infinitum et terreni halitus miscens utraque sorte confunditur. This region below the moon, and a long way below it as I notice is almost universally agreed , blends together an unlimited quantity from the upper element of air and an unhmited quantity of terrestrial vapour, being a combination of both orders.

From it come clouds, thunder-claps and also thunder-bolts, hail, frost, rain, storms and whirhvinds from it come most of ; mortals' misfortunes, and the warfare between the elements of nature. The force of the stars presses down terrestrial objects that strive to move towards the sky, and also draws to itself things that lack spon- taneous levitation. Rain falls, clouds rise, rivers dry up, hailstoi-ms sweep down ; rays scorch, and im- pinging from every side on the earth in the middle of the world, then are broken and recoil and carry with them the moisture they have drunk up.

Steam falls from on high and again returns on high. Empty winds sweep down, and then go back again with their plunder. So many hving creatures draw their breath from the upper air but the air strives in the opposite ; direction, and the earth pours back breath to the sky as if to a vacuum. Thus as nature swings to and fro hke a kind of shng, discord is kindled by the velocity of the world's motion. Nor is the battle allowed to stand still, but is continually carried up and whirled round, displaying in an immense globe that encircles the world the causes of things, con- and another heaven tinually overspreading another interwoven with the clouds.

This is the realm of the winds. On this account more facts have to be set out at the same time. Storms and rain obviously have some Rain. For who can doubt that summer and winter and the yearly vicissitudes observed in the seasons are caused by the motion of the heavenly bodies? Therefore as the nature of the sun is understood to control the year's seasons, so each of the other stars also has a force of its own that creates effects corresponding to its particular nature.

Some are productive of moisture dissolved into hquid, others of moisture hardened into frost or coagulated into snow or frozen into hail, others of a blast of air, others of warmth or heat, others of dew, others of cold.

But it must not be thought that the stars are of the size that they appear to the sight, since the consideration of their immense altitude proves that none of them is smaller than the moon. Consequently each of them exercises its own nature in its own motion, a fact which the transits of Saturn in particular make clear by their storms of rain. Arcturi vero sidus non ferme sine procellosa grandine emergit.

Nam caniculae exortu accendi solis vapores quis ignorat, cuius sideris effectus amplissimi in terra sentiuntur? Quin partibus quoque signorum quorundam sua vis inest, ut autumnali aequinoctio brumaque, cum tempestatibus confici sidus intellegimus, nec imbribus tantum tempestatibusque sed multis et corporum et ruris experimentis. But the rising of the constellation Arctm-us is almost ahvays accompanied by a hail-storm.

For who is not aware that the heat of the sun increases at the rising of the Lesser Dog-star, whose effects are felt on earth very widely? At its rise the seas are rough, wine in the cellars ripples in waves, pools of water are stirred. There is a wild animal in Egypt called the gazelle that according to the natives stands facing this dog-star at its rise, and gazing at it as if in worship, after first giving a sneeze.

It is indeed beyond doubt that dogs throughout the whole of that period are specially hable to rabies. Moreover also the parts of some constella- tions have an influence of their own — for instance at the autumnal equinox and at mid-winter, when we learn by the storms that the sun is completing its orbit; and not only by falls of rain and storms, but by many things that happen to our bodies and to the fields. The ohve and white poplar and willow turn round their leaves at the solstice.

Fleabane hung up in the house to dry flowers exactly on midwinter day, and inflated skins burst. This may surprise one who does not notice in daily experience that one plant, called heho- trope, ahvays looks towards the sun as it passes and at every hour of the day turns with it, even when it is obscured by a cloud. Igitur non eam infitias posse in has et ignes superne stellarum decidere quales sereno saepe cernimus, quorum ictu concuti aera verum est, quando et tela vibrata stridunt , cum vero in nubem perveniunt, vaporem dissonum gigni ut candente ferro in aquam demerso et fumidum vorticem volvi.

This makes ignorance all the more disgraceful to man, especially as he admits that with some cattle diseases of the eyes increase and diminish with the moon. His excuse is the heaven's vastness, being divided at an enormous height into 72 signs, that is, shapes of things or of animals into which the learned have mapped out the sky. Their density and bulk are con- jectured with certain inference from the fact that they obscure the sun, which is otherwise visible even to those diving into water to whatever depth.

Simili modo ventos vel potius flatus posse et arido siccoque anhehtu terrae gigni non negaverim, posse et aquis aera exspirantibus qui neque in nebu- lam densetur nec crassescat in nubes, posse et solis inpulsu agi, quoniam ventus haut ahud intellegatur " Those mentioned at the beginning of the chapter.

And I agree that these produce storms, and if there is wind or steam struggling in the cloud, it gives out claps of thunder, if it bursts out on fire, flashes of hghtning, if it forces its way on a longer track, heat-hghtning. The latter cleaves the cloud, the flashes burst through it, and thunder- claps are the blows of the fires colhding, causing fiery cracks at once to flash out in the clouds. It is also possible for breath emerging from the earth, when pressed down by the counter-impact of the stars, to be checked by a cloud and so cause thunder, nature choking down the sound while the struggle goes on but the crash sounding when the breath bursts out, as when a skin is stretched by being blown into.

It is also possible for this breath, what- ever it is, to be set on fire by the friction during its headlong progress. It is also possible for it to be struck out by the impact of the clouds, as by that of two stones, with heat-lightning flashing out hke sparks. But all these occurrences are accidental they cause— mere senseless and inefFectual thunder-claps, as their coming obeys no principle of nature they merely — eleave mountains and seas, and aU their other blows are ineffectual ; but the former " are prophetical and sent from on high, they come by fixed causes and from their own stars.

Sed plurimum sit an ventus. For we see winds arising both from rivers and bays and from the sea even when calm, and others, called altani, arising from the land the latter when they come back again from the ; sea are called turning winds, but if they go on, off- shore winds. The windings of mountains and their clustered peaks and ridges curved in an elbow or broken off into shoulders, and the hollow recesses of valleys, cleavino- with their irregular contours the air that is consequently reflected from them a phenomenon that in many place causes words spoken to be end- lessly echoed are productive of winds.

So again are caverns, Uke the one with an enormous gaping mouth on the coast of Dalmatia, from which, if you throw some Hght object into it, even in calm weather a gust like a whirlwind bursts out the name ; of the place is Senta. Also it is said that in the province of Cyrenaica there is a certain cHff, sacred to the South wind, which it is sacrilege for the hand of man to touch, the South wind immediately causing a sand-storm.

Even manufactured vessels in many houses if shut up in the dark have pecuHar exhalations. Thus there must be some cause for this. But there is a great difference between a cansesoj gust of air and a wind. More than twenty Greek authors of the past Persistenet have pubHshed observations about these subjects. The rewards were not greater when the ample successes were spread out over many students, and in fact the majority of these made the discoveries in question with no other reward at all save the consciousness of benefiting posterity.

Veteres quattuor omnino servavere per totidem mundi partes ideo nec Homerus plures nominat hebeti, ut mox iudicatum est, ratione; secuta aetas octo addidit nimis subtili atque concisa. I20 on voyages — but their object is profit not know- ledge and in their bHnd engrossment with avarice ; they do not reflect that knowledge is a more re- liable means even of making profit.

Consequently in view of these thousands of persons who go on voyages I will give a more detailed account of the winds than is perhaps suited to the task I have set in hand. Their successors adopted a compromise, adding to the short Ust four winds from the long one. There are consequently two winds in each of the four quarters of the heaven Subsolanus blowing from : the equinoctial sunrise E.

The morenumerousschemehadinsertedfourbetween these Thrascias N. Ver ergo aperit navigantibus maria, cuius in principio Favonii hibernum rnolhunt caelum sole Aquari XXV optinente partem : is dies sextus Februarias ante idus. Nor is this the end, inasmuch as others have also added one named Meses betAveen Boreas N.

There are also certain winds pecuUar to particular races, which do not go outside a special region, e. Some people call Caecias E. Hellespontias, and others have other variants for these names. Similarly in the province of Narbonne the most famous of the winds is Circius W. Fabianus asserts that South winds also do not pene- trate Egypt — which reveals the law of nature that even winds have their prescribed Hmits as well as seasons. Accordingly the spring opens the seas Seasons oj to voyagers at its beginning the West winds soften ; the wintry heaven, when the sun occupies the 25th degree of Aquarius the date of this is Feb.

Favonium quidam a. Post eos rursus Austri frequentes usque ad sidus Arcturi quod exoritur undecim diebus ante aequinoctiimi autumni. Cei'tain persons give the name CheUdonias to the West wind on the 19th February, owing to the appearance of the swallow, but some call it Oi'nithias, from the arrival of the birds on the 71st day after the shortest day, when it blows for nine days.

Opposite to the West wind is the wind that we have called Subsolanus E. The rise of the Pleiads in the same degrees of Taurus on May 10 brings summer ;it is a period of South wind, Auster, the opposite of Septentrio. But in the hottest period of summer the Dog-star rises, when the sun is entering the first degree of — Leo this day is July The Dog-star's rise is preceded for about eight days by North-east winds these are called the Forerunners.

But two days after his rising the North-east winds begin again, and continue blowing steadily for 30 days these are ; called Etesian or Annual winds. They are beheved to be softened by the sun's warmth being reinforced by the heat of the star; and they are the most regular of any of the winds, They are foUowed in turn by South winds, continuing to the rise of Arcturus, which occurs 40 days before the autumnal equinox. About 44 days after the autumnal equinox the setting of the Pleiads mai'ks the beginning of winter, which it is customary to date on November 11 ; this is the period of the Minter Aquilo, which is very unhke the summer one mentioned above it is opposite to the South-west ; wind.

Etesiae noctu desinunt fere, et a tertia diei hora oriuntur in Hispania et Asia ab oriente ; fiatus est eorum, in Ponto ab Aquilone, reliquis in partibus a meridie. Permutant et duo naturam cum situ, Auster, Africae serenus, Aquilo nubilus. The rest of the time there is wintry weather. However, not even the fury of the storms closes the sea ; pirates first compelled men by the threat of death to rush into death and venture on the winter seas," but now avarice exercises the same compulsion.

The South- west and especially the South are for Italy the damp winds it is said that on the Black Sea the East- ; north-east also attracts clouds. The North-west and South-east are dry, except when they are falling. The North-east and North are snow winds the North ; brings hailstorms, and so does the North-west.

The South wind is hot, the South-east and West warm the latter are also drier than the East wind, and in general all the northerly and westerly winds are drier than the southerly and easterly. The healthiest of all is the North wind the South is harmful, and more ; so when dry, perhaps because when damp it is colder Hving creatures are believed to be less hungry when it is blowing.

Etesian winds usually cease at night and rise at eight o'clock in the morning in Spain ; and Asia they are East winds, on the Black Sea North, and in other regions South. But they also begin to blow at midwinter when they are called the Bird- winds , but more gently and only for a few days. Austro maiores fluctus eduntur quam Aquilone, quo- niam ille infernus ex imo mari spirat, hic summo; ideoque post Austros noxii praecipue terrae motus. De generalibus ventis haec.

East to West the observer faces South. When those next to the ones falling rise, they go round from left to right " like the sun. The fourth moon usually decides about the course of the winds for the month. The South wind causes larger waves than the North- east because the former being below blows from the bottom of the sea but the latter from the top consequently earthquakes following South winds are specially destructive.

The sun both increases and reduces the force of the — wind the former when rising and setting, the latter at midday in summer seasons consequently the ; winds are usually lulled at midday or midnight, because either excessive cold or excessive heat makes them slack. Also winds are lulled by rain but they ; are most to be expected from quarters where the clouds have broken, reveaHng a clear sky. Eudoxus however thinks that if we choose to study the minimal circuits there is a regular re- — currence of all phenomena not only of Avinds but largely of other sorts of bad weather as well in — four-yearly periods, and that the period always begins in a leap-year at the rising of Sirius.

These are our observations vvith regard to the winds that are regular. Secondly, he must have a knowledge of drawing so that he can readily make sketches to show the appearance of the work which he proposes. Geometry, also, is of much assistance in architecture, and in particular it teaches us the use of the rule and compasses, by which especially we acquire readiness in making plans for buildings in their grounds, and rightly apply the square, the level, and the plummet.

By means of optics, again, the light in buildings can be drawn from fixed quarters of the sky. It is true that it is by arithmetic that the total cost of buildings is calculated and measurements are computed, but difficult questions involving symmetry are solved by means of geometrical theories and methods. A wide knowledge of history is requisite because, among the ornamental parts of an architect's design for a work, there are many the underlying idea of whose employment he should be able to explain toGree inquirers.

For instance, suppose him to set up the marble statues of women in long robes, called Caryatides, to take the place of columns, with the mutules and coronas placed directly above their heads, he will give the following explanation to his questioners. They took the town, killed the men, abandoned the State to desolation, and carried off their wives into slavery, without permitting them, however, to lay aside the long robes and other marks of their rank as married women, so that they might be obliged not only to march in the triumph but to appear forever after as a type of slavery, burdened with the weight of their shame and so making atonement for their State.

Hence, the architects of the time designed for public buildings statues of these women, placed so as to carry a load, in order that the sin and the punishment of the people of Caryae might be known and handed down even to posterity. Likewise the Lacedaemonians under the leadership of Pausanias, son of Agesipolis, after conquering the Persian armies, infinite in number, with a small force at the battle of Plataea, celebrated a glorious triumph with the spoils and booty, and with the money obtained from the sale thereof built the Persian Porch, to be a monument to the renown and valour of the people and a trophy of victory for posterity.

And there they set effigies of the prisoners arrayed in barbarian costume and holding up the roof, their pride punished by this deserved affront, that enemies might tremble for fear of the effects of their courage, and that their own people, looking upon this ensample of their valour and encouraged by the glory of it, might be ready to defend their independence.

There are other stories of the same kind which architects ought to know. Warren Photo. As for philosophy, it makes an architect high-minded and not self-assuming, but rather renders him courteous, just, and honest without avariciousness. This is very important, for no work can be rightly done without honesty and incorruptibility. Let him not be grasping nor have his mind preoccupied with the idea of receiving perquisites, but let him with dignity keep up his position by cherishing a good reputation.

These are among the precepts of philosophy. For at points of intake and at curves, and at places where it is raised to a level, currents of air naturally form in one way or another; and nobody who has not learned the fundamental principles of physics from philosophy will be able to provide against the damage which they do.

So the reader of Ctesibius or Archimedes and the other writers of treatises of the same class will not be able to appreciate them unless he has been trained in these subjects by the philosophers. Music, also, the architect ought to understand so that he may have knowledge of the canonical and mathematical theory, and besides be able to tune ballistae, catapultae, and scorpiones to the proper key.

For the arms thrust through those stretched strings must, on being let go, strike their blow together at the same moment; but if they are not in unison, they will prevent the course of projectiles from being straight. These vessels are arranged with a view to musical concords or harmony, and apportioned in the compass of the fourth, the fifth, and the octave, and so on up to the double octave, in such a way that when the voice of an actor falls in unison with any of them its power is increased, and it reaches the ears of the audience with greater clearness and sweetness.

For without these considerations, the healthiness of a dwelling cannot be assured. And as for principles of law, he should know those which are necessary in the case of buildings having party walls, with regard to water dripping from the eaves, and also the laws about drains, windows, and water supply. And other things of this sort should be known to architects, so that, before they begin upon buildings, they may be careful not to leave disputed points for the householders to settle after the works are finished, and so that in drawing up contracts the interests of both employer and contractor may be wisely safe-guarded.

For if a contract is skilfully drawn, each may obtain a release from the other without disadvantage. From astronomy we find the east, west, south, and north, as well as the theory of the heavens, the equinox, solstice, and courses of the stars. If one has no knowledge of these matters, he will not be able to have any comprehension of the theory of sundials. Consequently, since this study is so vast in extent, embellished and enriched as it is with many different kinds of learning, I think that men have no right to profess themselves architects hastily, without having climbed from boyhood the steps of these studies and thus, nursed by the knowledge of many arts and sciences, having reached the heights of the holy ground of architecture.

But perhaps to the inexperienced it will seem a marvel that human nature can comprehend such a great number of studies and keep them in the memory. Still, the observation that all studies have a common bond of union and intercourse with one another, will lead to the belief that this can easily be realized. For a liberal education forms, as it were, a single body made up of these members.

Those, therefore, who from tender years receive instruction in the various forms of learning, recognize the same stamp on all the arts, and an intercourse between all studies, and so they more readily comprehend them all. This is what led one of the ancient architects, Pytheos, the celebrated builder of the temple of Minerva at Priene, to say in his Commentaries that an architect ought to be able to accomplish much more in all the arts and sciences than the men who, by their own particular kinds of work and the practice of it, have brought each a single subject to the highest perfection.

But this is in point of fact not realized. For an architect ought not to be and cannot be such a philologian as was Aristarchus, although not illiterate; nor a musician like Aristoxenus, though not absolutely ignorant of music; nor a painter like Apelles, though not unskilful in drawing; nor a sculptor such as was Myron or Polyclitus, though not unacquainted with the plastic art; nor again a physician like Hippocrates, though not ignorant of medicine; nor in the other sciences need he excel in each, though he should not be unskilful in them.

For, in the midst of all this great variety of subjects, an individual cannot attain to perfection in each, because it is scarcely in his power to take in and comprehend the general theories of them. Still, it is not architects alone that cannot in all matters reach perfection, but even men who individually practise specialties in the arts do not all attain to the highest point of merit. Therefore, if among artists working each in a single field not all, but only a few in an entire generation acquire fame, and that with difficulty, how can an architect, who has to be skilful in many arts, accomplish not merely the feat—in itself a great marvel—of being deficient in none of them, but also that of surpassing all those artists who have devoted themselves with unremitting industry to single fields?

It appears, then, that Pytheos made a mistake by not observing that the arts are each composed of two things, the actual work and the theory of it. One of these, the doing of the work, is proper to men trained in the individual subject, while the other, the theory, is common to all scholars: for example, to physicians and musicians the rhythmical beat of the pulse and its metrical movement.

But if there is a wound to be healed or a sick man to be saved from danger, the musician will not call, for the business will be appropriate to the physician. So in the case of a musical instrument, not the physician but the musician will be the man to tune it so that the ears may find their due pleasure in its strains.

It appears, therefore, that he has done enough and to spare who in each subject possesses a fairly good knowledge of those parts, with their principles, which are indispensable for architecture, so that if he is required to pass judgement and to express approval in the case of those things or arts, he may not be found wanting. As for men upon whom nature has bestowed so much ingenuity, acuteness, and memory that they are able to have a thorough knowledge of geometry, astronomy, music, and the other arts, they go beyond the functions of architects and become pure mathematicians.

Hence they can readily take up positions against those arts because many are the artistic weapons with which they are armed. Such men, however, are rarely found, but there have been such at times; for example, Aristarchus of Samos, Philolaus and Archytas of Tarentum, Apollonius of Perga, Eratosthenes of Cyrene, and among Syracusans Archimedes and Scopinas, who through mathematics and natural philosophy discovered, expounded, and left to posterity many things in connexion with mechanics and with sundials.

Since, therefore, the possession of such talents due to natural capacity is not vouchsafed at random to entire nations, but only to a few great men; since, moreover, the function of the architect requires a training in all the departments of learning; and finally, since reason, on account of the wide extent of the subject, concedes that he may possess not the highest but not even necessarily a moderate knowledge of the subjects of study, I request, Caesar, both of you and of those who may read the said books, that if anything is set forth with too little regard for grammatical rule, it may be pardoned.

Still, as regards the efficacy of the art and the theories of it, I promise and expect that in these volumes I shall undoubtedly show myself of very considerable importance not only to builders but also to all scholars. Order gives due measure to the members of a work considered separately, and symmetrical agreement to the proportions of the whole. By this I mean the selection of modules from the members of the work itself and, starting from these individual parts of members, constructing the whole work to correspond.

Arrangement includes the putting of things in their proper places and the elegance of effect which is due to adjustments appropriate to the character of the work. A groundplan is made by the proper successive use of compasses and rule, through which we get outlines for the plane surfaces of buildings.

An elevation is a picture of the front of a building, set upright and properly drawn in the proportions of the contemplated work. All three come of reflexion and invention. Reflexion is careful and laborious thought, and watchful attention directed to the agreeable effect of one's plan. Invention, on the other hand, is the solving of intricate problems and the discovery of new principles by means of brilliancy and versatility. These are the departments belonging under Arrangement. Eurythmy is beauty and fitness in the adjustments of the members.

This is found when the members of a work are of a height suited to their breadth, of a breadth suited to their length, and, in a word, when they all correspond symmetrically. Symmetry is a proper agreement between the members of the work itself, and relation between the different parts and the whole general scheme, in accordance with a certain part selected as standard. Thus in the human body there is a kind of symmetrical harmony between forearm, foot, palm, finger, and other small parts; and so it is with perfect buildings.

Propriety is that perfection of style which comes when a work is authoritatively constructed on approved principles. The temples of Minerva, Mars, and Hercules, will be Doric, since the virile strength of these gods makes daintiness entirely inappropriate to their houses. In temples to Venus, Flora, Proserpine, Spring- Water, and the Nymphs, the Corinthian order will be found to have peculiar significance, because these are delicate divinities and so its rather slender outlines, its flowers, leaves, and ornamental volutes will lend propriety where it is due.

The construction of temples of the Ionic order to Juno, Diana, Father Bacchus, and the other gods of that kind, will be in keeping with the middle position which they hold; for the building of such will be an appropriate combination of the severity of the Doric and the delicacy of the Corinthian. Propriety arises from usage when buildings having magnificent interiors are provided with elegant entrance-courts to correspond; for there will be no propriety in the spectacle of an elegant interior approached by a low, mean entrance.

Or, if dentils be carved in the cornice of the Doric entablature or triglyphs represented in the Ionic entablature over the cushion- shaped capitals of the columns, the effect will be spoilt by the transfer of the peculiarities of the one order of building to the other, the usage in each class having been fixed long ago.

Finally, propriety will be due to natural causes if, for example, in the case of all sacred precincts we select very healthy neighbourhoods with suitable springs of water in the places where the fanes are to be built, particularly in the case of those to Aesculapius and to Health, gods by whose healing powers great numbers of the sick are apparently cured.

The result will be that the divinity will stand in higher esteem and find his dignity increased, all owing to the nature of his site. There will also be natural propriety in using an eastern light for bedrooms and libraries, a western light in winter for baths and winter apartments, and a northern light for picture galleries and other places in which a steady light is needed; for that quarter of the sky grows neither light nor dark with the course of the sun, but remains steady and unshifting all day long.

Economy denotes the proper management of materials and of site, as well as a thrifty balancing of cost and common sense in the construction of works. This will be observed if, in the first place, the architect does not demand things which cannot be found or made ready without great expense. For example: it is not everywhere that there is plenty of pitsand, rubble, fir, clear fir, and marble, since they are produced in different places and to assemble them is difficult and costly.

Where there is no pitsand, we must use the kinds washed up by rivers or by the sea; the lack of fir and clear fir may be evaded by using cypress, poplar, elm, or pine; and other problems we must solve in similar ways. A second stage in Economy is reached when we have to plan the different kinds of dwellings suitable for ordinary householders, for great wealth, or for the high position of the statesman.

There are three departments of architecture: the art of building, the making of timepieces, and the construction of machinery. Building is, in its turn, divided into two parts, of which the first is the construction of fortified towns and of works for general use in public places, and the second is the putting up of structures for private individuals. There are three classes of public buildings: the first for defensive, the second for religious, and the third for utilitarian purposes.

Under defence comes the planning of walls, towers, and gates, permanent devices for resistance against hostile attacks; under religion, the erection of fanes and temples to the immortal gods; under utility, the provision of meeting places for public use, such as harbours, markets, colonnades, baths, theatres, promenades, and all other similar arrangements in public places.

All these must be built with due reference to durability, convenience, and beauty. For fortified towns the following general principles are to be observed. First comes the choice of a very healthy site. Such a site will be high, neither misty nor frosty, and in a climate neither hot nor cold, but temperate; further, without marshes in the neighbourhood. For when the morning breezes blow toward the town at sunrise, if they bring with them mists from marshes and, mingled with the mist, the poisonous breath of the creatures of the marshes to be wafted into the bodies of the inhabitants, they will make the site unhealthy.

Again, if the town is on the coast with a southern or western exposure, it will not be healthy, because in summer the southern sky grows hot at sunrise and is fiery at noon, while a western exposure grows warm after sunrise, is hot at noon, and at evening all aglow.

These variations in heat and the subsequent cooling off are harmful to the people living on such sites. The same conclusion may be reached in the case of inanimate things. For instance, nobody draws the light for covered wine rooms from the south or west, but rather from the north, since that quarter is never subject to change but is always constant and unshifting.

For heat is a universal solvent, melting out of things their power of resistance, and sucking away and removing their natural strength with its fiery exhalations so that they grow soft, and hence weak, under its glow. We see this in the case of iron which, however hard it may naturally be, yet when heated thoroughly in a furnace fire can be easily worked into any kind of shape, and still, if cooled while it is soft and white hot, it hardens again with a mere dip into cold water and takes on its former quality.

We may also recognize the truth of this from the fact that in summer the heat makes everybody weak, not only in unhealthy but even in healthy places, and that in winter even the most unhealthy districts are much healthier because they are given a solidity by the cooling off. Similarly, persons removed from cold countries to hot cannot endure it but waste away; whereas those who pass from hot places to the cold regions of the north, not only do not suffer in health from the change of residence but even gain by it.

It appears, then, that in founding towns we must beware of districts from which hot winds can spread abroad over the inhabitants. This defect may be due to violent heat from certain quarters of the sky, pouring into the open pores in too great proportion to admit of a mixture suited to the natural temperament of the body in question. Again, if too much moisture enters the channels of a body, and thus introduces disproportion, the other elements, adulterated by the liquid, are impaired, and the virtues of the mixture dissolved.

This defect, in turn, may arise from the cooling properties of moist winds and breezes blowing upon the body. In the same way, increase or diminution of the proportion of air or of the earthy which is natural to the body may enfeeble the other elements; the predominance of the earthy being due to overmuch food, that of air to a heavy atmosphere. If one wishes a more accurate understanding of all this, he need only consider and observe the natures of birds, fishes, and land animals, and he will thus come to reflect upon distinctions of temperament.

One form of mixture is proper to birds, another to fishes, and a far different form to land animals. Winged creatures have less of the earthy, less moisture, heat in moderation, air in large amount. Being made up, therefore, of the lighter elements, they can more readily soar away into the air.

Fish, with their aquatic nature, being moderately supplied with heat and made up in great part of air and the earthy, with as little of moisture as possible, can more easily exist in moisture for the very reason that they have less of it than of the other elements in their bodies; and so, when they are drawn to land, they leave life and water at the same moment. Therefore, if all this is as we have explained, our reason showing us that the bodies of animals are made up of the elements, and these bodies, as we believe, giving way and breaking up as a result of excess or deficiency in this or that element, we cannot but believe that we must take great care to select a very temperate climate for the site of our city, since healthfulness is, as we have said, the first requisite.

I cannot too strongly insist upon the need of a return to the method of old times. Our ancestors, when about to build a town or an army post, sacrificed some of the cattle that were wont to feed on the site proposed and examined their livers. If the livers of the first victims were dark-coloured or abnormal, they sacrificed others, to see whether the fault was due to disease or their food. They never began to build defensive works in a place until after they had made many such trials and satisfied themselves that good water and food had made the liver sound and firm.

If they continued to find it abnormal, they argued from this that the food and water supply found in such a place would be just as unhealthy for man, and so they moved away and changed to another neighbourhood, healthfulness being their chief object. That pasturage and food may indicate the healthful qualities of a site is a fact which can be observed and investigated in the case of certain pastures in Crete, on each side of the river Pothereus, which separates the two Cretan states of Gnosus and Gortyna.

On investigating the subject, physicians discovered on this side a kind of herb which the cattle chew and thus make their spleen small. The herb is therefore gathered and used as a medicine for the cure of splenetic people. From food and water, then, we may learn whether sites are naturally unhealthy or healthy.

If the walled town is built among the marshes themselves, provided they are by the sea, with a northern or north-eastern exposure, and are above the level of the seashore, the site will be reasonable enough. For ditches can be dug to let out the water to the shore, and also in times of storms the sea swells and comes backing up into the marshes, where its bitter blend prevents the reproductions of the usual marsh creatures, while any that swim down from the higher levels to the shore are killed at once by the saltness to which they are unused.

An instance of this may be found in the Gallic marshes surrounding Altino, Ravenna, Aquileia, and other towns in places of the kind, close by marshes. They are marvellously healthy, for the reasons which I have given. But marshes that are stagnant and have no outlets either by rivers or ditches, like the Pomptine marshes, merely putrefy as they stand, emitting heavy, unhealthy vapours. A case of a town built in such a spot was Old Salpia in Apulia, founded by Diomede on his way back from Troy, or, according to some writers, by Elpias of Rhodes.

Year after year there was sickness, until finally the suffering inhabitants came with a public petition to Marcus Hostilius and got him to agree to seek and find them a proper place to which to remove their city. He constructed the walls and laid out the house lots, granting one to each citizen for a mere trifle. This done, he cut an opening from a lake into the sea, and thus made of the lake a harbour for the town. The result is that now the people of Salpia live on a healthy site and at a distance of only four miles from the old town.

After insuring on these principles the healthfulness of the future city, and selecting a neighbourhood that can supply plenty of food stuffs to maintain the community, with good roads or else convenient rivers or seaports affording easy means of transport to the city, the next thing to do is to lay the foundations for the towers and walls. Dig down to solid bottom, if it can be found, and lay them therein, going as deep as the magnitude of the proposed work seems to require.

They should be much thicker than the part of the walls that will appear above ground, and their structure should be as solid as it can possibly be laid. The towers must be projected beyond the line of wall, so that an enemy wishing to approach the wall to carry it by assault may be exposed to the fire of missiles on his open flank from the towers on his right and left. Special pains should be taken that there be no easy avenue by which to storm the wall.

Towns should be laid out not as an exact square nor with salient angles, but in circular form, to give a view of the enemy from many points. Defence is difficult where there are salient angles, because the angle protects the enemy rather than the inhabitants. The thickness of the wall should, in my opinion, be such that armed men meeting on top of it may pass one another without interference.

In the thickness there should be set a very close succession of ties made of charred olive wood, binding the two faces of the wall together like pins, to give it lasting endurance. For that is a material which neither decay, nor the weather, nor time can harm, but even though buried in the earth or set in the water it keeps sound and useful forever. And so not only city walls but substructures in general and all walls that require a thickness like that of a city wall, will be long in falling to decay if tied in this manner.

The towers should be set at intervals of not more than a bowshot apart, so that in case of an assault upon any one of them, the enemy may be repulsed with scorpiones and other means of hurling missiles from the towers to the right and left. Opposite the inner side of every tower the wall should be interrupted for a space the width of the tower, and have only a wooden flooring across, leading to the interior of the tower but not firmly nailed.

This is to be cut away by the defenders in case the enemy gets possession of any portion of the wall; and if the work is quickly done, the enemy will not be able to make his way to the other towers and the rest of the wall unless he is ready to face a fall. The towers themselves must be either round or polygonal.

Square towers are sooner shattered by military engines, for the battering rams pound their angles to pieces; but in the case of round towers they can do no harm, being engaged, as it were, in driving wedges to their centre. The system of fortification by wall and towers may be made safest by the addition of earthen ramparts, for neither rams, nor mining, nor other engineering devices can do them any harm.

The rampart form of defence, however, is not required in all places, but only where outside the wall there is high ground from which an assault on the fortifications may be made over a level space lying between. In places of this kind we must first make very wide, deep ditches; next sink foundations for a wall in the bed of the ditch and build them thick enough to support an earth-work with ease.

Having laid these two foundations at this distance from one another, build cross walls between them, uniting the outer and inner foundation, in a comb-like arrangement, set like the teeth of a saw. With this form of construction, the enormous burden of earth will be distributed into small bodies, and will not lie with all its weight in one crushing mass so as to thrust out the substructures.

With regard to the material of which the actual wall should be constructed or finished, there can be no definite prescription, because we cannot obtain in all places the supplies that we desire. Dimension stone, flint, rubble, burnt or unburnt brick,— use them as you find them. For it is not every neighbourhood or particular locality that can have a wall built of burnt brick like that at Babylon, where there was plenty of asphalt to take the place of lime and sand, and yet possibly each may be provided with materials of equal usefulness so that out of them a faultless wall may be built to last forever.

The town being fortified, the next step is the apportionment of house lots within the wall and the laying out of streets and alleys with regard to climatic conditions. They will be properly laid out if foresight is employed to exclude the winds from the alleys. Cold winds are disagreeable, hot winds enervating, moist winds unhealthy.

For example, Mytilene in the island of Lesbos is a town built with magnificence and good taste, but its position shows a lack of foresight. In that community when the wind is south, the people fall ill; when it is northwest, it sets them coughing; with a north wind they do indeed recover but cannot stand about in the alleys and streets, owing to the severe cold. Wind is a flowing wave of air, moving hither and thither indefinitely.

It is produced when heat meets moisture, the rush of heat generating a mighty current of air. That this is the fact we may learn from bronze eolipiles, and thus by means of a scientific invention discover a divine truth lurking in the laws of the heavens. Eolipiles are hollow bronze balls, with a very small opening through which water is poured into them. Set before a fire, not a breath issues from them before they get warm; but as soon as they begin to boil, out comes a strong blast due to the fire.

Thus from this slight and very short experiment we may understand and judge of the mighty and wonderful laws of the heavens and the nature of winds. By shutting out the winds from our dwellings, therefore, we shall not only make the place healthful for people who are well, but also in the case of diseases due perhaps to unfavourable situations elsewhere, the patients, who in other healthy places might be cured by a different form of treatment, will here be more quickly cured by the mildness that comes from the shutting out of the winds.

The diseases which are hard to cure in neighbourhoods such as those to which I have referred above are catarrh, hoarseness, coughs, pleurisy, consumption, spitting of blood, and all others that are cured not by lowering the system but by building it up. On the other hand, a mild, thick air, without draughts and not constantly blowing back and forth, builds up their frames by its unwavering steadiness, and so strengthens and restores people who are afflicted with these diseases.

Some have held that there are only four winds: Solanus from due east; Auster from the south; Favonius from due west; Septentrio from the north. But more careful investigators tell us that there are eight. Chief among such was Andronicus of Cyrrhus who in proof built the marble octagonal tower in Athens. On the several sides of the octagon he executed reliefs representing the several winds, each facing the point from which it blows; and on top of the tower he set a conical shaped piece of marble and on this a bronze Triton with a rod outstretched in its right hand.

It was so contrived as to go round with the wind, always stopping to face the breeze and holding its rod as a pointer directly over the representation of the wind that was blowing. Such, then, appears to have been his device, including the numbers and names of the wind and indicating the directions from which particular winds blow. These facts being thus determined, to find the directions and quarters of the winds your method of procedure should be as follows.

In the middle of the city place a marble amussium, laying it true by the level, or else let the spot be made so true by means of rule and level that no amussium is necessary. At about the fifth hour in the morning, take the end of the shadow cast by this gnomon, and mark it with a point. Then, opening your compasses to this point which marks the length of the gnomon's shadow, describe a circle from the centre. In the afternoon watch the shadow of your gnomon as it lengthens, and when it once more touches the circumference of this circle and the shadow in the afternoon is equal in length to that of the morning, mark it with a point.

From these two points describe with your compasses intersecting arcs, and through their intersection and the centre let a line be drawn to the circumference of the circle to give us the quarters of south and north. Then, using a sixteenth part of the entire circumference of the circle as a diameter, describe a circle with its centre on the line to the south, at the point where it crosses the circumference, and put points to the right and left on the circumference on the south side, repeating the process on the north side.

From the four points thus obtained draw lines intersecting the centre from one side of the circumference to the other. Thus we shall have an eighth part of the circumference set out for Auster and another for Septentrio. The rest of the entire circumference is then to be divided into three equal parts on each side, and thus we have designed a figure equally apportioned among the eight winds. Then let the directions of your streets and alleys be laid down on the lines of division between the quarters of two winds.

On this principle of arrangement the disagreeable force of the winds will be shut out from dwellings and lines of houses. For if the streets run full in the face of the winds, their constant blasts rushing in from the open country, and then confined by narrow alleys, will sweep through them with great violence. Those who know names for very many winds will perhaps be surprised at our setting forth that there are only eight.

Remembering, however, that Eratosthenes of Cyrene, employing mathematical theories and geometrical methods, discovered from the course of the sun, the shadows cast by an equinoctial gnomon, and the inclination of the heaven that the circumference of the earth is two hundred and fifty-two thousand stadia, that is, thirty-one one million five hundred thousand paces, and observing that an eighth part of this, occupied by a wind, is three million nine hundred and thirty- seven thousand five hundred paces, they should not be surprised to find that a single wind, ranging over so wide a field, is subject to shifts this way and that, leading to a variety of breezes.

So we often have Leuconotus and Altanus blowing respectively to the right and left of Auster; Libonotus and Subvesperus to the right and left of Africus; Argestes, and at certain periods the Etesiae, on either side of Favonius; Circias and Corus on the sides of Caurus; Thracias and Gallicus on either side of Septentrio; Supernas and Caecias to the right and left of Aquilo; Carbas, and at a certain period the Ornithiae, on either side of Solanus; while Eurocircias and Volturnus blow on the flanks of Eurus which is between them.

There are also many other names for winds derived from localities or from the squalls which sweep from rivers or down mountains. Some people do indeed say that Eratosthenes could not have inferred the true measure of the earth. Whether true or untrue, it cannot affect the truth of what I have written on the fixing of the quarters from which the different winds blow.

If he was wrong, the only result will be that the individual winds may blow, not with the scope expected from his measurement, but with powers either more or less widely extended. Let A be the centre of a plane surface, and B the point to which the shadow of the gnomon reaches in the morning. Taking A as the centre, open the compasses to the point B, which marks the shadow, and describe a circle.

Put the gnomon back where it was before and wait for the shadow to lessen and grow again until in the afternoon it is equal to its length in the morning, touching the circumference at the point C. Then from the points B and C describe with the compasses two arcs intersecting at D. Next draw a line from the point of intersection D through the centre of the circle to the circumference and call it E F. This line will show where the south and north lie.

Likewise on the north side, centre the compasses on the circumference at the point F on the line to the north, and set off the points I and K to the right and left; then draw lines through the centre from G to K and from H to I. The rest of the circumference is to be divided equally into three parts on the right and three on the left, those to the east at the points L and M, those to the west at the points N and O. Finally, intersecting lines are to be drawn from M to O and from L to N.

Thus we shall have the circumference divided into eight equal spaces for the winds. This done, apply a gnomon to these eight divisions and thus fix the directions of the different alleys. If the city is on the sea, we should choose ground close to the harbour as the place where the forum is to be built; but if inland, in the middle of the town. For the temples, the sites for those of the gods under whose particular protection the state is thought to rest and for Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva, should be on the very highest point commanding a view of the greater part of the city.

Mercury should be in the forum, or, like Isis and Serapis, in the emporium: Apollo and Father Bacchus near the theatre: Hercules at the circus in communities which have no gymnasia nor amphitheatres; Mars outside the city but at the training ground, and so Venus, but at the harbour. It is moreover shown by the Etruscan diviners in treatises on their science that the fanes of Venus, Vulcan, and Mars should be situated outside the walls, in order that the young men and married women may not become habituated in the city to the temptations incident to the worship of Venus, and that buildings may be free from the terror of fires through the religious rites and sacrifices which call the power of Vulcan beyond the walls.

As for Mars, when that divinity is enshrined outside the walls, the citizens will never take up arms against each other, and he will defend the city from its enemies and save it from danger in war. Ceres also should be outside the city in a place to which people need never go except for the purpose of sacrifice.

That place should be under the protection of religion, purity, and good morals. Proper sites should be set apart for the precincts of the other gods according to the nature of the sacrifices offered to them. The principle governing the actual construction of temples and their symmetry I shall explain in my third and fourth books. In the second I have thought it best to give an account of the materials used in buildings with their good qualities and advantages, and then in the succeeding books to describe and explain the proportions of buildings, their arrangements, and the different forms of symmetry.

Dinocrates, an architect who was full of confidence in his own ideas and skill, set out from Macedonia, in the reign of Alexander, to go to the army, being eager to win the approbation of the king. He took with him from his country letters from relatives and friends to the principal military men and officers of the court, in order to gain access to them more readily. Being politely received by them, he asked to be presented to Alexander as soon as possible.

They promised, but were rather slow, waiting for a suitable opportunity. So Dinocrates, thinking that they were playing with him, had recourse to his own efforts. He was of very lofty stature and pleasing countenance, finely formed, and extremely dignified.

Trusting, therefore, to these natural gifts, he undressed himself in his inn, anointed his body with oil, set a chaplet of poplar leaves on his head, draped his left shoulder with a lion's skin, and holding a club in his right hand stalked forth to a place in front of the tribunal where the king was administering justice.

His strange appearance made the people turn round, and this led Alexander to look at him. I have made a design for the shaping of Mount Athos into the statue of a man, in whose left hand I have represented a very spacious fortified city, and in his right a bowl to receive the water of all the streams which are in that mountain, so that it may pour from the bowl into the sea.

Alexander, delighted with the idea of his design, immediately inquired whether there were any fields in the neighbourhood that could maintain the city in corn. On finding that this was impossible without transport from beyond the sea, "Dinocrates," quoth he, "I appreciate your design as excellent in composition, and I am delighted with it, but I apprehend that anybody who should found a city in that spot would be censured for bad judgement.

For as a newborn babe cannot be nourished without the nurse's milk, nor conducted to the approaches that lead to growth in life, so a city cannot thrive without fields and the fruits thereof pouring into its walls, nor have a large population without plenty of food, nor maintain its population without a supply of it. Therefore, while thinking that your design is commendable, I consider the site as not commendable; but I would have you stay with me, because I mean to make use of your services.

From that time, Dinocrates did not leave the king, but followed him into Egypt. There Alexander, observing a harbour rendered safe by nature, an excellent centre for trade, cornfields throughout all Egypt, and the great usefulness of the mighty river Nile, ordered him to build the city of Alexandria, named after the king. But as for me, Emperor, nature has not given me stature, age has marred my face, and my strength is impaired by ill health.

Therefore, since these advantages fail me, I shall win your approval, as I hope, by the help of my knowledge and my writings. In my first book, I have said what I had to say about the functions of architecture and the scope of the art, as well as about fortified towns and the apportionment of building sites within the fortifications.

Although it would next be in order to explain the proper proportions and symmetry of temples and public buildings, as well as of private houses, I thought best to postpone this until after I had treated the practical merits of the materials out of which, when they are brought together, buildings are constructed with due regard to the proper kind of material for each part, and until I had shown of what natural elements those materials are composed. But before beginning to explain their natural properties, I will prefix the motives which originally gave rise to buildings and the development of inventions in this field, following in the steps of early nature and of those writers who have devoted treatises to the origins of civilization and the investigation of inventions.

My exposition will, therefore, follow the instruction which I have received from them. The men of old were born like the wild beasts, in woods, caves, and groves, and lived on savage fare. As time went on, the thickly crowded trees in a certain place, tossed by storms and winds, and rubbing their branches against one another, caught fire, and so the inhabitants of the place were put to flight, being terrified by the furious flame.

After it subsided, they drew near, and observing that they were very comfortable standing before the warm fire, they put on logs and, while thus keeping it alive, brought up other people to it, showing them by signs how much comfort they got from it. In that gathering of men, at a time when utterance of sound was purely individual, from daily habits they fixed upon articulate words just as these had happened to come; then, from indicating by name things in common use, the result was that in this chance way they began to talk, and thus originated conversation with one another.

Therefore it was the discovery of fire that originally gave rise to the coming together of men, to the deliberative assembly, and to social intercourse. Some made them of green boughs, others dug caves on mountain sides, and some, in imitation of the nests of swallows and the way they built, made places of refuge out of mud and twigs. Next, by observing the shelters of others and adding new details to their own inceptions, they constructed better and better kinds of huts as time went on.

And since they were of an imitative and teachable nature, they would daily point out to each other the results of their building, boasting of the novelties in it; and thus, with their natural gifts sharpened by emulation, their standards improved daily. At first they set up forked stakes connected by twigs and covered these walls with mud. Others made walls of lumps of dried mud, covering them with reeds and leaves to keep out the rain and the heat.

Finding that such roofs could not stand the rain during the storms of winter, they built them with peaks daubed with mud, the roofs sloping and projecting so as to carry off the rain water. That houses originated as I have written above, we can see for ourselves from the buildings that are to this day constructed of like materials by foreign tribes: for instance, in Gaul, Spain, Portugal, and Aquitaine, roofed with oak shingles or thatched.

Among the Colchians in Pontus, where there are forests in plenty, they lay down entire trees flat on the ground to the right and the left, leaving between them a space to suit the length of the trees, and then place above these another pair of trees, resting on the ends of the former and at right angles with them. These four trees enclose the space for the dwelling.

The interstices, which are left on account of the thickness of the building material, are stopped up with chips and mud. As for the roofs, by cutting away the ends of the crossbeams and making them converge gradually as they lay them across, they bring them up to the top from the four sides in the shape of a pyramid.

They cover it with leaves and mud, and thus construct the roofs of their towers in a rude form of the "tortoise" style. On the other hand, the Phrygians, who live in an open country, have no forests and consequently lack timber. They therefore select a natural hillock, run a trench through the middle of it, dig passages, and extend the interior space as widely as the site admits. Over it they build a pyramidal roof of logs fastened together, and this they cover with reeds and brushwood, heaping up very high mounds of earth above their dwellings.

Thus their fashion in houses makes their winters very warm and their summers very cool. Some construct hovels with roofs of rushes from the swamps. Among other nations, also, in some places there are huts of the same or a similar method of construction. Likewise at Marseilles we can see roofs without tiles, made of earth mixed with straw. In Athens on the Areopagus there is to this day a relic of antiquity with a mud roof.

The hut of Romulus on the Capitol is a significant reminder of the fashions of old times, and likewise the thatched roofs of temples or the Citadel. From such specimens we can draw our inferences with regard to the devices used in the buildings of antiquity, and conclude that they were similar.

Furthermore, as men made progress by becoming daily more expert in building, and as their ingenuity was increased by their dexterity so that from habit they attained to considerable skill, their intelligence was enlarged by their industry until the more proficient adopted the trade of carpenters.

From these early beginnings, and from the fact that nature had not only endowed the human race with senses like the rest of the animals, but had also equipped their minds with the powers of thought and understanding, thus putting all other animals under their sway, they next gradually advanced from the construction of buildings to the other arts and sciences, and so passed from a rude and barbarous mode of life to civilization and refinement.

Then, taking courage and looking forward from the standpoint of higher ideas born of the multiplication of the arts, they gave up huts and began to build houses with foundations, having brick or stone walls, and roofs of timber and tiles; next, observation and application led them from fluctuating and indefinite conceptions to definite rules of symmetry. Perceiving that nature had been lavish in the bestowal of timber and bountiful in stores of building material, they treated this like careful nurses, and thus developing the refinements of life, embellished them with luxuries.

Therefore I shall now treat, to the best of my ability, of the things which are suitable to be used in buildings, showing their qualities and their excellencies. Some persons, however, may find fault with the position of this book, thinking that it should have been placed first.

I will therefore explain the matter, lest it be thought that I have made a mistake. Hence I have there declared what the qualities of an architect should be. In the first book, therefore, I have spoken of the function of the art, but in this I shall discuss the use of the building materials which nature provides.

For this book does not show of what architecture is composed, but treats of the origin of the building art, how it was fostered, and how it made progress, step by step, until it reached its present perfection. This book is, therefore, in its proper order and place. I will now return to my subject, and with regard to the materials suited to the construction of buildings will consider their natural formation and in what proportions their elementary constituents were combined, making it all clear and not obscure to my readers.

For there is no kind of material, no body, and no thing that can be produced or conceived of, which is not made up of elementary particles; and nature does not admit of a truthful exploration in accordance with the doctrines of the physicists without an accurate demonstration of the primary causes of things, showing how and why they are as they are. First of all Thales thought that water was the primordial substance of all things.

Hence, although Democritus did not in a strict sense name them, but spoke only of indivisible bodies, yet he seems to have meant these same elements, because when taken by themselves they cannot be harmed, nor are they susceptible of dissolution, nor can they be cut up into parts, but throughout time eternal they forever retain an infinite solidity. All things therefore appear to be made up and produced by the coming together of these elements, so that they have been distributed by nature among an infinite number of kinds of things.

Hence I believed it right to treat of the diversity and practical peculiarities of these things as well as of the qualities which they exhibit in buildings, so that persons who are intending to build may understand them and so make no mistake, but may gather materials which are suitable to use in their buildings.

Beginning with bricks, I shall state of what kind of clay they ought to be made. They should not be made of sandy or pebbly clay, or of fine gravel, because when made of these kinds they are in the first place heavy; and, secondly, when washed by the rain as they stand in walls, they go to pieces and break up, and the straw in them does not hold together on account of the roughness of the material.

These materials are smooth and therefore durable; they are not heavy to work with, and are readily laid. Bricks should be made in Spring or Autumn, so that they may dry uniformly. Those made in Summer are defective, because the fierce heat of the sun bakes their surface and makes the brick seem dry while inside it is not dry.

And so the shrinking, which follows as they dry, causes cracks in the parts which were dried before, and these cracks make the bricks weak. Bricks will be most serviceable if made two years before using; for they cannot dry thoroughly in less time. When fresh undried bricks are used in a wall, the stucco covering stiffens and hardens into a permanent mass, but the bricks settle and cannot keep the same height as the stucco; the motion caused by their shrinking prevents them from adhering to it, and they are separated from their union with it.

Hence the stucco, no longer joined to the core of the wall, cannot stand by itself because it is so thin; it breaks off, and the walls themselves may perhaps be ruined by their settling. This is so true that at Utica in constructing walls they use brick only if it is dry and made five years previously, and approved as such by the authority of a magistrate.

There are three kinds of bricks. First, the kind called in Greek Lydian, being that which our people use, a foot and a half long and one foot wide. The other two kinds are used by the Greeks in their buildings. With these bricks there are also half-bricks. When these are used in a wall, a course of bricks is laid on one face and a course of half-bricks on the other, and they are bedded to the line on each face.

The walls are bonded by alternate courses of the two different kinds, and as the bricks are always laid so as to break joints, this lends strength and a not unattractive appearance to both sides of such walls. The reason why they can float seems to be that the clay of which they are made is like pumice-stone.

So it is light, and also it does not, after being hardened by exposure to the air, take up or absorb liquid. So these bricks, being of this light and porous quality, and admitting no moisture into their texture, must by the laws of nature float in water, like pumice, no matter what their weight may be. They have therefore great advantages; for they are not heavy to use in building and, once made, they are not spoiled by bad weather.

In walls of masonry the first question must be with regard to the sand, in order that it may be fit to mix into mortar and have no dirt in it. The kinds of pitsand are these: black, gray, red, and carbuncular. Of these the best will be found to be that which crackles when rubbed in the hand, while that which has much dirt in it will not be sharp enough.

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