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Rosell, Cayetano, ed. Salazar y Castro, Luis de, Sarasa, Esteban, Schiff, Mario, []. Sharrer, Harvey L. Solano, Emma, Tate, Brian ed. Trinchera, Francesco, — Napoli: Tip. Trueba, A. Vaquero, Mercedes, Villacorta, Consuelo, ed. Estudios en memoria del Prof. Los datos exactos de ediciones que cito pueden verse en Baranda 8— En ese procedimiento, las lecturas del devoto crean un intertexto mental en el que las obras utilizadas y la propia experiencia imaginativa que los autores fomentaban se superponen unas a otras para configurar escenas interiores.

Sobre los lectores de la obra vid. El procedimiento es igual al de algunas Vitae Christi que se pueden rastrear, por ejemplo, La vida de nuestro redentor y salvador Iesu Christo, de san Buenaventura. La personalidad de Aranda es muy distinta de los otros Antonios y sus intereses la reflejan bien.

Tal enfoque solo puede explicarse en que los intereses que unen al autor y al lector son diferentes a los del Cruzado y Medina. Y es que fue el teniente de governador desta ciudad de Hierusalem y su tierra a una aldea [. Los lectores inscritos en la obra son los nobles, los cortesanos y los universitarios en cuyo mundo vive, ellos son los doctos, que dudan y sospechan, a los que debe convencer.

Bataillon, Marcel, Brefeld, Josephie, Castro, Manuel de, OFM, Antonio de Aranda, O. Davies, J. Deluz, Christiane, Epistolario, ed. Jones, Joseph R. Nizet , pp. Lima, Durval Pires de, Manuel, Juan, — Libro de los estados, Obras completas, I, ed. Miner, Earl, ed. Redondo, Augustin, Rojo Vega, Anastasio, Villoslada, Ricardo G.

Sin embargo, hay que tener presente que estas intervenciones regias no tienen lugar hasta el momento en que se producen las reclamaciones del obispo o del cabildo de Burgos. Esto hace que se pueda sospechar de la complicidad del monarca con sus propios oficiales. Debe tratarse del actual San Esteban de Novoa, en el municipio de Carballeda de Avia, partido judicial de Ribadavia, en la provincia de Orense. Debo a la gentileza del prof.

Es probable que nos hallemos ante una familia distinta de la anterior. Alvar, Carlos, Ballesteros Beretta, Antonio, Brea, Mercedes et al. Cal Pardo, Enrique, Blasones y linajes de Galicia, vol. II, p. Gaibrois de Ballesteros, Mercedes, — Historia del reinado de Sancho IV de Castilla, 3 vols. Madrid: Tip. Gomes, Rita Costa, Indini, Maria Luisa, and Saverio Panunzio Lanciani, Giulia, Flitter y P.

Linehan, Peter, Cuentas y gastos — del rey D. Fueros municipales de Santiago y de su tierra, Madrid: Ediciones Castilla. Livro de Linhagens do Conde D. Cancioneiro da Ajuda, 2 vols. Halle: M. Nieto Cumplido, Manuel, Salazar y Castro, Luis de, [—]. Tavani, Giuseppe, Torre, Antonio de la, y E. Madrid: CSIC. Torres Fontes, Juan, ed. Ventura, Leontina, Vieira, Yara Frateschi, Pedro de Tablares. Es posible que, incluso, se cantara, aunque no he encontrado referencias.

Atribuido a Figueroa. B: Ms. Riccardiana de Florencia, f. Atribuido a Silvestre. C: Ms. Editado por Glaser D: Ms. E: Ms. F: Ms. G: Ms. Descrito por Askins H: Ms. Atribuido al Conde de Salinas. I: Ms. J: Ms. K: Ms. P: Ms. Las lecturas de estos textos son las siguientes: Versos Siglas y variantes 1. Todos : sin vos, sin mi, sin ser, sin Dios, sin vida P: sem vos, sem mim, sem ser, sem Deos, sem vida 3.

Deidade valeroza, e das historias palma, sedeme amorosa e verei composto a vos, a mim, a meu ser, a Deos, a vida. Pero esos tres motivos se extremaron en el soneto. Curioso derrotero sentimental el del soneto. Y otro tanto ocurre con el retoque r2 [DE] en el v. En otras ocasiones coinciden las atribuciones de una obra a ambos poetas.

Es obra de Silvestre, sin ninguna duda. Glaser , Lapesa , Avalle-Arce la dan con bastante fiabilidad o, incluso, certeza absoluta como de Balbuena. En el del fol. Utilizo el aparato de variantes de Sena. No importa. La primera es la variante del v. Lo mismo sucede en el v. Obras citadas Avalle-Arce, Juan Bautista, Askins, Arthur L-F.

Balbuena, Bernardo de, []. Firenze: Alinea. Glaser, Edward, Lapesa, Rafael, []. Maurer, Christopher, Sabat de Rivers, Georgina, Sena, Jorge de, Francisco de la Torre e D. Wilson, Edward M. A1r—v] [1] Reglas de bien vivir [ff. A2—D2r] Prologo antes de la obra.

D2v—E3v] [c. O Magestad diuinal fuente del ser q[ue] nos diste [c. O Mundo desatinado mie[n]tra mas viejo mas loco [c. Hay otro en la British Library. BJen sera mundo hablar delos pobres y su estado [c. O Mu[n]ndo loco perdido cuyo mal no suffre cura [c. E3v—E4r] [c. E4r—E7v] [c. LA memoria delos dias quando tuyo ser solia [c. Perdoname q[ue] he peccado tu mi Dios q[ue] te offendi [c. De quien habla Job [ff. E7v—F3r] en estas vltimas palabras. Uno de los elementos que hemos de tener en cuenta para definir la peculiaridad de la propuesta de los mendicantes, al menos los que son objeto de nuestras consideraciones, es la insistencia en los aspectos conflictivos de las relaciones matrimoniales y familiares.

Es, naturalmente, 5 6 En su Tratado de la obediencia, citado por Sofaroli Haze del delicado y le haze mal el calor o el sereno de la noche quien en invierno ni en verano no entrava en casa, guardando en el campo los puercos o el ganado. V y, en parte, VI. No conservamos ejemplar. VI y 54— Askins — El apellido Sarmiento surge una y otra vez relacionado con las obras publicadas a nombre de Espinosa. Si se revisan los pecados de los mercaderes, son los casos de conciencia los que tiene presente nuestro fraile.

Obras citadas Angenot, Marc, Askins, Arthur Lee-Francis, Baranda, Nieves, Bujanda, J. Cherubino da Siena, Regole della vita matrimoniale di frate Cherubino da Siena, eds. Cruz, Anne J. Doni Garfagnini, Manuela, La imprenta en Burgos — Madrid: Arco Libros.

Gallagher, Patrick, Guevara, Antonio de, Hentsch, Alice A. Lenzi, Maria L. Echard, Ballard y N. Reinhardt, Klaus, Schutte, Anne Jacobson, Zarri, Gabriella, Any Peninsular work that makes use of a bestiary animal with its moralization cannot, therefore, have relied on one of the translations of Brunetto Latini.

It is also true that the Aviarium, the first book of the twelfth-century De bestiis et aliis rebus wrongly attributed to Hugh of St Victor , sometimes copied independently, appears to have made a greater impression in Portugal than in the rest of the Peninsula. How, then, can we account for the frequent appearance of bestiary animals — that is to say, creatures such as the phoenix and the unicorn, ordinary animals with their bestiary attributes, and animals with bestiary moralizations attached — in medieval Castilian and Portuguese works?

The answer is to be found partly in the pervasive influence of the bestiaries in the church culture of the Middle Ages notably in sermons and in ecclesiastical architecture , and partly in intergeneric borrowings between bestiaries and encylopedias, bestiaries and Aesopic fable collections, etc. It is, therefore, not surprising that bestiary animals play a substantial part in the exempla and comparisons of the Orto do Esposo, a 1 2 See McCulloch , George and Yapp, Hassig, and Baxter.

The author is now generally believed to have been Hugues de Fouilloy Hugo de Folieto ; see, however, Baxter Clark gives a full account of the Aviarium. See Martins b and , and Clark — Williams , a work of reference. The wealth of material provided by Maler in his second volume may have led most scholars to believe that nothing remained for them to do.

In the last decade and a half there has been a rapid growth of interest in the Orto do Esposo, manifested chiefly in conference papers that became articles and in graduate theses, using both standard and theoretically-based approaches to the text. One study appeared in , five between and , and at least eight since They deal with the image of the king Nunes , satire Odber de Baubeta; cf.

Martins , questions of genre Madureira , the teaching of doctrine Fernandes , and the Orto in the context of the exemplary tradition Madureira ; cf. Martins Some animals are mentioned only in passing, and without any connection to the bestiary tradition. I have not yet seen Nunes, Fernandes, or Carreto; in the last case, the title does not indicate — to me, at least — the subject of the article.

All future references to the text of the Orto will be to his edition, by book, chapter, and page plus line s. The passage on the tiger is a good example: after two introductory sentences that, as Maler shows II, 67 , derive from Bartholomeus, we are told that: 7 The Song of Songs was one of the most influential books of the Bible in medieval European culture: see Dronke, Hunt, Astell, and Matter.

But this person who has stolen the cub, seeing that even though carried by a swiftly galloping horse he is on the point of being destroyed by the speed of the tigress, cunningly invents the following ruse. When he perceives that the mother is close, he throws down a glass ball, and she, taken in by her own reflection, assumes that the image of herself in the glass is her little one.

She pulls up, hoping to collect the infant. But after she has been delayed by the hollow mockery, she again throws herself with all her might into the pursuit of the horseman, and goaded by rage, quickly threatens to catch up with the fugitive.

She curls herself round the vain reflection and lies down as if to suckle the cub. And so, deceived by the zeal of her own dutifulness, she loses both her revenge and her baby. Lincis the Lynx is called this because he is a kind of wolf [ The brute is distinguished by spots on the back like a Pard, but he looks like a wolf.

They say that his urine hardens into a precious stone called Ligurius, and it is established that the Lynxes themselves realize this, by the following fact. When they have pissed the liquid, they cover it up in the sand as much as they can. They do this from a certain constitutional meanness, for fear that the piss should be useful as an ornament to the human race.

White 22 The moralizing sections that precede and follow this do not have an ultimate bestiary origin: what precedes In between The whole is, as Maler shows II. E toda aue que uoa perante a vista delle, morre queymada, posto que vooe alongada delle.

A donazinha o mata, ca o Senhor Deus, 9 10 The Basilisk [ Even if it looks at a man, it destroys him. Nevertheless, Basilisks are conquered by weasels. Men put these into the lairs in which they lie hid, thus, on seeing the On the lynx, see McCulloch and George and Yapp 49— For the basilisk, see McCulloch Bartholomeus seems to have misunderstood the bestiary at this point.

The weasel follows it and kills it. God never makes anything without a remedy. Physiologus says that the only animal which it considers as an enemy is the Dragon. When a Panther has dined and is full up, it hides away in its own den and goes to sleep. After three days it wakes up again and emits a loud belch, and there comes a very sweet smell from its mouth, like the smell of all-spice.

When the other animals have heard the noise, they follow wherever it goes, because of the sweetness of this smell. But the Dragon only, hearing the sound, flees into the caves of the earth, being smitten with fear. There, unable to bear the smell, it becomes torpid and half asleep, and remains motionless, as if dead. See McCulloch 84—86 and George and Yapp 72— Maler discusses analogues and a possible source at some length II, — E bem asy fez Jhesu Christo.

Dying, he reposed in the den-tomb and descended into Hell, there binding the Great Dragon. But on the third day he rose from sleep and emitted a mighty noise breathing sweetness. The Panther [ So they tear the infant-burdened womb in which they are, as being an obstacle to delivery. This pours out or rather discharges the litter, since it is spurred by pain. Thus, when the seed of generation is infused into it at a later date, this does not adhere to the damaged and scarred parts and is not accepted, but vainly jumps out again.

It is possible, therefore, that the Portuguese author drew directly on the bestiary for this part, a possibility strengthened by his treatment of the phoenix. For the phoenix passage, we have available for comparison the Portuguese manuscripts of the Aviarium chap. Esta aue que chamam Finiz he grande e tem crista assy como paao. E da parte deanteyra era esplandecente come ouro e da parte detras auia as penas collor de purpura [ It is unique; it is unparalleled in the whole world.

It lives beyond five hundred years. When it notices that it is growing old, it builds itself a funeral pyre, after collecting some spice branches, and on this, turning its body toward the rays of the sun and flapping its wings, it sets fire to itself of its own accord until it burns itself up. Then verily, on the ninth day afterward, it rises from its own ashes! Cases in which the Orto draws on the bestiary — usually via Bartholomeus Anglicus but perhaps, once or twice, directly — are, then, frequent.

On the other hand, some animals that are prominent in the bestiary have little or none of their bestiary description in the Orto. The lion is the most striking case: we have already seen that hardly any bestiary material is present in the substantial account in Orto, IV. One conclusion that emerges from the examples discussed above is that the bestiary moral does not usually appear in the Orto passages. This is not to be wondered at, since, as Maler has established, the immediate source for most of the passages is De proprietatibus rerum, and this encyclopedic work, though by no means devoid of Christian teaching, does not in general incorporate the moralizations from the bestiary.

We should note in passing that the relationship between encyclopedias and the bestiary is complex: one late family of bestiary manuscripts draws quite heavily on Bartholomeus George and Yapp 5 , and we have already seen that a large part of the Livres dou Tresor derives from the Physiologus. When the Portuguese author wants to add a moral to the zoological information, he usually takes one from Bartholomeus or provides his own.

The second conclusion is that the Orto do Esposo is one of the most important collections of bestiary material in medieval Portugal. To describe it as a bestiary would be far-fetched, not because most of the material is filtered through De proprietatibus rerum but because it is scattered throughout Book IV with a little material earlier in the work.

There is no continuous block of bestiary material comparable to what we find in the Peninsular translations of the Livres dou Tresor. Azevedo, Pedro de, ed. Baldwin, Spurgeon, ed. Baxter, Ron, Carreto, Carlos Fonseca Clamote, Aberta , pp.

Cary, George, The Medieval Alexander, ed. Ross Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Clark, Willene B. Deyermond, Alan, Kasten — , ed. Dronke, Peter, Lourdaux and D. Verhelst, Mediaevalia Lovaniensia, 1. George, Wilma and Brunsdon Yapp, Hassig, Debra, Hunt, Tony, Glyn S. Burgess et al.

Machado, Ana Maria, McCulloch, Florence, Chapel Hill: Univ. Madureira, Margarida, Jaume I , II, pp. Maler, Bertil, ed. Matter, E. Ann, Nunes, Elisa Rosa Pisco, Odber de Baubeta, Patricia Anne, Panunzio, Saverio, ed.

Pereira, Paulo Alexandre Cardoso, Nova de Lisboa. Prince, Dawn E. Rossi, N. Vasconcelos, J. Leite de, ed. White, T. Williams, Frederick G. Wittlin, Curt, ed. O Rei de Portugal, D. Na verdade, estes cavaleiros de Cristo, corrompidos pelo poder, batem-se com energia pela defesa das suas comendas, pela livre posse dos bens, de que podiam dispor, testamentariamente, a favor de pessoas seculares.

Raimundo, abade de Fitero. Este, rapidamente, recebe o apoio de D. Com a morte de D. Vejamos: a. A partir daqui cap. E seguese ho prollogo. Capitollo primeiro. Das horas e cerimonias do conuento. Capitolo segundo. Capitollo iijo. Capitollo quarto. Capitolo5 quinto. Ho Colado. Capitollo sexto.

Que ho senhor meestre dee uestiairo e mantos brancos aos freires. Capitollo octauo. Capitollo noueno. Capitollo decimo. Capitollo onzeno. Dos mouros seruidores dos freyres do conuento. Capitollo duodecimo. Do mestre, que ensine hos freires no conuento. Dos visitadores e como ham de visitar. Capitollo quartodecimo. Das despesas e salairo dos visitadores. Capitollo sextodecimo.

Que hos visitadores sejam visitados. Capitollo decimo septimo. A quem e quando se haade fazer ha profissom. Capitollo decimo octauo. Capitollo decimo nono. Capitollo vicessimo. Capitollo uicessimo primeiro. Capitollo xxiij. Capitollo xxiiij. Capitollo xxb. Capitollo xxbj. A quem e a quaaes se deem has comendas. Capitollo xxbij. Que gozem em sua vida do que acrecentarem. Capitollo xxxo. Capitollo xxxj. Capitollo xxxij. Capitollo xxxiij. Capitollo xxxiiijo. Mas requeremos 15 16 Orig.

Capitollo xxxb. Capitollo xxxbj. Capitollo xxxbij. Capitollo xxxbiij. Capitollo xxxjx. Capitolo xl. Desconhecemos o sentido de ochia. Capitollo xlij. Capitollo xliij. Capitollo xliiij. Capitollo xlv. Que ho meestre tenha camareiro e moordomo dos da Hordem. Capitollo xlvj. Capitollo xlvij. Capitollo xlviij. Capitollo xlix. Capitollo l.

Capitollo lj. Capitollo liij. Capitollo liiij. Capitollo lb. Capitollo lvj. Capitollo lvij. Capitolllo lix. Capitollo lx. Capitollo lxj. Capitollo lxij. Capitollo lxiij. Capitolo lxiiij. Capitollo lxv. Capitollo lxbj. E respondam todos: — Amen. Versso: Adiutorium nostrum jn nomine Dominj. Ex hoc. Qui uiuis et regnas cum Deo Patre in unjtate, et cetera. Como hamde fazer profissom hos da Hordem de Calatraua.

E logo diga ho senhor meestre: — Deus uos dee Vida perdurauel. E darlhe ha ho senhor meestre paz. Acabouse esta obra, a xb de Mayo de mjl e quinhentos. Subentenda-se: nunc et usque in saeculum. Subentenda-se: et cum spiritu tuo. Sharrer, Charles B. Em PhiloBiblon. Askins, Harvey L. Cocheril, Fr. Mauro, Marques, Maria da Alegria, Nascimento, Aires Augusto, Oliveira, Miguel de, PhiloBiblon, ed.

Charles Faulhaber, Arthur L-F. Askins e Harvey L. Askins, Charles B. Faulhaber e H. Pimenta, Maria Cristina Gomes, Lopo Dias de Sousa ? Tarouca, Carlos da Silva, They are probably the least well-known of all his works. One of them, a version of the book of Ecclesiastes, disappeared from view completely as soon as it was written. Only one copy of it is known to have survived, in the Codrington Library of All Souls College, Oxford, where it lay, misleadingly catalogued and probably unread for centuries until its chance discovery in History has been slightly kinder to the translation of De senectute, though it too remains an extremely rare book.

It survives in All Souls, where it is bound together with Ecclesiastes. No Portuguese library open to the public has a copy of the edition, but there is a manuscript of it in the Biblioteca Municipal do Porto. It has to be said that, of the two, his Ecclesiastes is the greater achievement. It was a courageous act to make any translation from the Bible into Portuguese, while the introduction and notes which accompany the text reveal an intellectual curiosity and tolerance quite possibly unmatched in sixteenth-century Europe.

There is a detailed account of it in Vasconcelos 47— Both these modern editions are based on a copy of the edition in private hands. Every translator has a dual role to play as he puts into his own language thoughts originally formulated in a different linguistic and cultural environment.

He was in a good position to write such a commentary, because in Padua he had access to the full range of humanistic scholarship. Not only that: he had recently spent some months in the company of Erasmus, one of the greatest of Renaissance translators. The translation scores highest when viewed from the purely Portuguese perspective. He dedicated his translations to his relative, the courtier, historian and poet Garcia de Resende.

Francisco, the first count of Vimioso. Manuel and D. In addition to his major military and political roles he was also a poet and man of letters. It was a way of emphasizing the achievements of the Portuguese and of promoting himself as their spokesman.

He was illegitimate, the son of D. The future bishop was the offspring of the unhallowed relationship between the heir to the duchy, another D. Afonso, and D. Beatriz, the daughter of Martim Afonso de Sousa. Whatever its origin, it got him into severe difficulty, especially later in life. He was obliged to emend his chronicle of the reign of D. Manuel after publication because the sensibilities of the dukes had been offended. Cato was censor a political office in BC.

Francisco in spite of the fact that one aspect of the dedication badly backfired. See Earle He also had a religious agenda, since for him translation was a way of understanding universal religious truths. As a humanist, strongly influenced by Erasmus, he was inclined to give the Old Testament and classical philosophy equal significance, and in the prefatory material to his version of Ecclesiastes de Salamam he hints how this could be done, without ever quite stating it openly.

Taking his authority Erasmus, with whom he had stayed in Freiburg in , he puts it on an equal footing with original compostion. His treatise about old age is set about a century before his own time, at a period when Greek influence in Rome was less 13 14 See Rodrigues 46— Abbreviations are expanded silently. EARLE than it subsequently became.

It is true that Cato, the principal speaker, devoted his old age to the study of Greek literature XI. The whole work can be seen as an attempt by Cicero to assert Roman values. In a marginal note at XXII. De senectute was a much easier book to translate than Ecclesiastes. Though not free from linguistic difficulty it presented fewer and less thorny problems of interpretation than the Old Testament.

See Cicero , fol. Torres convincingly identifies the passage in question as VI, 17 I, Nevertheless, his version of De senectute, like that of Ecclesiastes, is accurate, fluent and not overly in awe of the Latin original. Freedom can be seen very obviously in his care to use the forms of address appropriate in his day to a young man addressing a much older and more distinguished person. The ancient Romans had no such convention and used the second person singular indiscriminatingly.

There is freedom of a different kind in his treatment of the Latin word tolerabiliorem. Such additions are very frequent in the translation. In the same chapter III. In a passage in XI. In IV. A study of them reveals the kind of reader he believed himself to be writing for and the frame of mind he expected that reader to adopt when approaching the translation.

It was a controversy that had engaged his friend and mentor Erasmus, who himself had edited De senectute on a number of occasions and had decided views about how to expound the text. By the early sixteenth century De senectute had become a standard work and had attracted the attention of a number of commentators.

Martinus Phileticus, or Philerticus, was an Italian professor of both Greek and Latin who worked in Rome in the s and 70s. In XX. For Phileticus and Ascensius I use Cicero Each of their commentaries is immensely long, longer than the dialogue which they are intended to expound. Their appearance on the printed page is rebarbative in the extreme.

Both by his editorial practice and in his prefaces to his editions Erasmus attacked this kind of thing. Like his fifteenth-century predecessors, he uses the margins of his translation for notes on the text, which sometimes fill them so that certain pages have a very dense appearance. But the margins are narrow, and the reader is left in no doubt that the translation of Cicero is more important than the reflections of the translator. Other issues divided editors of texts besides quantity of annotation and the typographical appearance of their work.

In an interesting essay Grafton brings into sharp focus the conflicting aims of fifteenth- and sixteenth-century editors of Cicero. And indeed both approaches to editing Cicero are to be found in his exegesis of De senectute. It should, 23 See the preface to Iacobus Tutor, dated , in Cicero This preface immediately precedes the text of the Officia. EARLE therefore, be accompanied by a work whose function is to prepare the reader for death, just as Solomon, traditionally regarded as the author of Ecclesiastes, followed it with the Song of Songs.

That highly erotic outpouring is, according to St Jerome, concerned with the relationship of the soul with its maker and so appropriate reading for the elderly. Nor are the comments already discussed profound statements about the supposed divinity of the philosophy of Plato.

Perhaps he felt, as Erasmus did about the New Testament, that the word of God spoke for itself and needed no elaboration. He admits as much in the dedication, at the same time neatly sidestepping the potential insult to the dedicatee, the Count of Vimioso fol. It becomes less an inspired utterance of universal relevance in time and geographical setting, and more a historical document whose comprehension depends on a knowledge of the particular context in which it was written.

See Justinus in Works Cited. He may also have used the Latin Ptolomy of with its marginal notes by Michael Villanovanus in which he matched classical placenames with their modern equivalents Ptolomy These are the main themes of his commentary and he does not digress into the pedantic disquisitions about the meaning of words and their origin which so burden the work of his predecessors.

One of the characteristics of De senectute which must give any commentator trouble is its allusive quality. The main character of the dialogue, Cato, is an old man who has led a remarkably full life. An aspect of his healthy old age is his excellent memory, which leads him to refer glancingly to many of the people he had met in more than sixty years of active life. In IX. In VIII. IV, fol. But again his own interests can lead him astray.

He does not use a numerical dating system — no more does 28 Phileticus derived the material for his note from another philosophical dialogue by Cicero Tusculan Disputations, I. See Cicero fol. Phileticus had come out in favour of 30, but Badicus Ascensius quotes Ovid in favour of In his Metamorphoses, XII, ll. He returns to the same question in XIX. It is surprising to find him so indifferent to classical literature, for instance. He draws attention to 30 See Glareanus in Works Cited.

In Glareanus published one of them in his Dodecachordon. Yet it, and the chronicles, have their value. In VII. In other places he helps the Portuguese reader by pointing out how the Latin second person singular can sometimes be used impersonally as in English and is equivalent in Portuguese to the third person IX. He could admire Plato while never hesitating in his Christian faith, and on a less exalted plane could steer a path between the different styles of exegesis of a classical text that were available to him.

He may at times be superficial, but he is always tolerant. Yet in one respect at least the translation remains mysterious: its printing history. Judging by the number of surviving copies, the print run must have been very small.

More copies may come to light in time, but at the moment only three copies of De senectute are known — and only one of Ecclesiastes. It is a pity that he did not. Portuguese is not a literature rich in translations of the classics. If the translation of De senectute had had greater exposure it could have brought Portuguese culture closer to the European mainst ream.

Cicero, Marcus Tullius, Omnia denuo vigilantiori cura recognita, per Des. Erasmum Rot. Earle, T. Gerhard, B. Glareanus, Henricus, Chronologia, sive temporum supputatio in omnem Romanam historiam, in T. Livii Patavini [. Justinus, Marcus Junianus, Trogi Pompei externae historiae in compendium ab Iustino redactae. Matos, Manuel Cadafaz de, Nascimento, Aires Augusto, ed. Piel, Joseph M.

Pompeius, Trogus. See Justinus, Marcus Junianus. Probus, Aemilius. Ptolomy, Claudii Ptolemaei Alexandrini Geographicae enarrationis libri octo, ed. Torres, Amadeu, ed. Vasconcelos, Joaquim de, Para las La biblioteca al completo fue entonces recolocada y reclasificada.

Adquiere ocho libros en lengua catalana y uno en castellano, El recibimiento que hizo el rey de Francia en Saona al rey don Fernando Abc. Todos ellos los hemos desarrollado convenientemente entre corchetes. Durante el camino de vuelta se detiene en Barcelona, Tarragona y Valencia. Adjacent to the Old Infirmary is the Rosary Garden, a place for spiritual contemplation, at the centre of which is a stone statue of the Blessed Virgin Mary.

St Peter's Church underwent extensive repair and refurbishment in — Most of the Victorian stencilling was not restored, although the whitewash was removed from the stencilling above the altar. It is a long-standing practice, as with many Jesuit schools around the world, that pupils write A. At the end of a piece of work they write L. These are both traditional Jesuit mottoes. As a registered charity,[25] Stonyhurst is obliged to provide benefits to the wider community under the terms of the Charities Act As such, the College is home to the local Catholic parish church, which receives worshippers from Hurst Green every day.

Hugo Sherburn armig. Anno Domini Et sicut fuit sic fiat. Ten GCSEs are usually taken by each pupil, consisting of five compulsory subjects Religious Studies, Mathematics, English Language and Literature, and a modern language French, German or Spanish plus Information Technology and Personal, Social Education, with five other options from humanities, sciences, or arts subjects. One of these may be dropped and the remainder, or all, taken on to A-Level.

Education during the college's early history was based on St Ignatius' Ratio Studiorum, with emphasis upon theology, classics and science, all of which still feature prominently in the curriculum. Until Roman Catholics were admitted to Oxbridge in , Stonyhurst was also home to "philosopher gentlemen" studying BA courses under the London Matriculation Examination system.

Their numbers began to fall after and the department was closed in Among those collections kept away from public view are the numerous blood-soaked garments from Jesuits martyred in Japan, the skull of Cardinal Morton, the ropes used to quarter St Edmund Campion SJ, the hairs of St Francis Xavier SJ, an enormous solid silver jewel-encrusted monstrance, the Wintour vestments, a cope made for Henry VII, and a thorn said to be from the crown of thorns placed upon Jesus' head at the crucifixion.

The school has a functioning observatory which was built in Five years later Fr Sidgreaves began the first series of monthly geometric observations, which continued until May When its private owner came to sell it, the college was able to buy it back and restore it to its original home. When I went to Brambletye at the age of nine, in September , it was my fifth school in the last four years.

As my parents were routinely being posted within the Army, they felt a boarding school would give me a more stable education. I vaguely remember touring the school with them and Mr Blencowe, the Headmaster, one summer before term and being asked if I would be happy there for the next four years, to which I obediently replied, "Yes". The school seemed to be based on many military methods. Each boy was allocated to one of four Houses named after great British military heroes: there were Nelson, Marlborough and Drake, and I was in Wellington.

Many boy's fathers had been to Brambletye when they were young and it was not unusual for them to insist their son followed in the same House. Instead of prefects we had Officers. As just one part of the overall military discipline we had to march everywhere! Despite this being formalised by Christening we were only referred to by our surnames.

The list of boarders showed a proliferation of double-barrelled surnames, and one poor boy was even blessed with a triple barrelled title. If you had the same surname as someone else, the older and more senior added "1" to his name, the junior adding "2". You had Smith 1 and 2 because they were common. They did get as far as Sommerfelt 3 but no other parents managed to produce four offspring within the four year scope of preparatory school life fertility treatment had not been developed at this time!

I remember the first night, going to bed later than it should have been at 6. They were comforted by the matrons in their starched white uniforms. I had the benefit of a few months on the majority of them as I was a Spring baby born in March, while there were still others born later in Autumn of the same year who were in the same intake. Whether this classified me as "retarded" because there were younger and cleverer boys in the same class, I shall never be sure, but I do know I didn't cry on the first night.

The dormitory was a long room with nine steel framed beds down one side, seven down the other. One side had deep windows stretching from the high ceiling down to near the floor, overlooking the shallow valley below. To the right you could see a lake or reservoir that glistened in the sun. It appeared only a few miles away.

To me it symbolised "freedom" as on nice sunny days you could see yachts sailing on it. But between the shimmering water and me was a gulf that might as well have been a thousand miles wide. I never ever did reach its shores, and be able to look back across to the school. Winter terms could be dark and huge curtains were drawn across those high dormitory windows.

In summer time even they couldn't make it dark enough to sleep until late. But at least in summertime you could find the enamelled tin potties which were strategically located around the dormitory. These could get rather full and smelly over night and were a disgusting trap for little feet as boys sneaked around barefoot in their pyjamas after lights out. There was many a time when a toe stubbed a potty in the dark.

There would be a stifled shriek either followed by the splashing of urine onto the wooden floor or the crashing of an empty tin potty skidding across the dormitory. If it crashed into the steel frame of a bed you had about 10 seconds to run back to the other end of the dormitory in pitch darkness, find your bed, leap under the blankets and "be asleep" before simultaneously the lights came on and a Master strode into the room.

Anyone caught out of bed was in for a whacking! Actually this only happened rarely. Dormitory raids were the exception rather than the rule. Mind you it was difficult from the juniors dormitory. The dormitory door led into a magnificent hall, very much the Headmaster's part of the school, with offices, and staff rooms to the right. A huge skinned tiger with his stuffed head, bared teeth and glass eyes, lay star shaped on the parquet floor, ready to rip into your ankles if you dared pass.

To the left lay a wood panelled corridor leading to Mr Blencowe's room. Ahead, past the tiger, rose a magnificent wooden grand staircase. Above it a huge portrait of a very stern gentleman stared down forbiddingly towards the dormitory door.

Access to the other dormitories could only be gained across this hall and up the staircase. With doors to left and right from which a master might appear at any moment, the staring, watching eyes of the portrait, and the risk of a master or matron appearing on the landing above, it was incredibly risky in a Colditz sort of way left to venture upstairs after lights out.

If a number of you were caught, wielding pillows, tip toeing upstairs, there was only one outcome. A quick march down the panelled corridor to the left took you to Mr Blencowe's office. Normally being there was not good news, but it always gave me the chance to see the two black cast statues of Charles I and Henry VIII?

I was always impressed by these 3ft tall figures and thirty-five years later was quite upset to hear that they ended their lives thrown in a rubbish tip. There were a number of strange procedures for First Years. One peculiar rule was that juniors had to line up outside the toilets every morning. A junior officer held a book — perhaps it should have been called a log book.

According to the order of name in the book each boy would enter the toilet as a cubicle became available, do what he could and return to report to the officer with either a "1" or a "2" to confirm which bodily function had been completed.

A twelve or thirteen year old officer then had the medical responsibility when noting a certain boy had not reported a "2" for several days, to tell him to go back in and try harder. Serious cases of constipation were referred to the school nurse. After lunch we were required to rest. This meant returning to our dormitory to lie fully clothed in our uniforms on our beds and in silence. Of course at our age this was the last thing we wanted to do.

Sleeping was difficult at this time of the day; after all lights out was at 6. You could take one book to read, but if you had made a poor choice you were stuck with it. Fidgeting was not allowed, even if you were bored! Apart from the above two additions to the day's routine it didn't really matter which year you were in, the routine Monday to Friday was the same. We got up on the alarm bell, dressed and washed. Then all or so boys marched by dormitory into the Dining room to sit on wooden benches down the sides of long wooden tables topped by either a Master or Matron at each end.

Grace was said in a silent room to immediately be followed by the din of scraping of chairs and benches, clattering of china and cutlery and chattering boys. The food was always prepared and brought to the ends of the tables in large aluminium trays by some curious little Spanish couple called Angela and Manuel.

I was never sure where they lived but it appeared to be in a large cupboard at the end of the dining hall! The Master or Matron served the food, helped by the boy on the end of the row. We all moved round one place each day. As each plate was filled with food it was passed from boy to boy down the line to the end. Breakfast was always cornflakes in the summer term followed by bacon, egg and plum tomatoes.

Sometimes the egg was scrambled in a watery pale yellow mush of nothing. For variety it was fried into flat discs of rubber. In winter it was porridge poured out of a massive jug - every day. Sometimes I ate a few spoonfuls, but despite a rule that you sit there until you eat it, there was always a hungry chum nearby that preferred to eat my porridge than have a dose of scrambled egg.

Once I sat in the dining hall whilst the rest of school had morning inspection, chapel, prep and the first lesson, before Angela took pity on me, gave me a smile, and removed the solid, cold bowl of porridge from in front of me.

I would have sat there all day, but I think she had been waiting to go shopping! After the meal we returned to the dormitory to make our beds. This was a precise science recalling military traditions of the 45 degree hospital tuck and razor sharp folds. Points were attributed to the house for clean and tidy dormitories. We then had a short time to brush up our shoes and present ourselves for inspection in the main hall. This was to all intents and purposes a military parade with the Captain walking up and down each line to give a head to toe examination of brushed hair, tie knot, clean knees and polished and tied shoes.

We always faced one side of the hall and your eyes naturally rose up to some huge ornate wooden boards listing the names of all the old School Captains who had gone on to better things. I was always struck by this board as it listed boys all the way back to the time of the Great War. I never thought my name would be on this board and I was proven right! Next came chapel. A short march took us into a beautiful little chapel.

I still remember there was so much wood in it and some lovely religious frescos. As a "non-singer" chapel during the week was quite straightforward. You stood up, sang, sat down, knelt, stood up, sang, knelt, sat up, listened to the lesson……….. I once was told to read the lesson. I was given a week to prepare for it, and fretted every day over it. Shaking in my shoes I read it in front of the whole school and apparently missed a whole verse out of it, but next to nobody noticed.

We had a short spell of "prep" until nine o'clock time to do the home work you didn't do lastnight before it was full steam into lessons. Colonel Molesworth, was our French teacher. He was so regimented in everything he did, at lunchtime he would disect a rectangular tray of rice pudding with skin, into 24 precise portions using a knife to gauge the proportions. Then he would take the knife and try to cut a rectangular block of rice pudding! I tell you what, he had some knack! I detested rice pudding, porridge, semolina or tapioca, and still he always managed to give me the same sized portion as everyone else!

He was even more amazing at French. He taught us Franglais, a language quite unknown to the Gallic people of France, so that even after finishing at Brambletye, and continuing it at High school, I still could not speak French after nine years. He would have left today's England's football team in tears with his rules. In the days of wingers on each side, inside left, centre forward, inside right, with right, centre and left halves and a left and right back you could not move out of your "box".

As a right back, cross an imaginary line between the goal and the centre spot into the left half and the whistle would blow and you would be sent to run a quick circuit of the four pitches on the lower playing fields. Colonel Molesworth approved of the shoulder barge whereby a four stone weakling on the ball could be shoulder-barged with the force of a charging rhinoceros and no foul given.

Similarly Henniker—Heaton's clod-hopper boots, which were built of half inch thick leather coming up to the middle of his shins, tipped on the sole with half inch steel studs and re-inforced toe caps, could quite legitimately be used to separate an opponents leg from his foot at the ankle without any thought about the need to take time off sports through injury, physiotherapy or scans.

Colonel Molesworth: clipped moustache, highly polished brown shoes: what did he do in the war? Mmm; he was prisoner. That seems appropriate. Mr Trevanion was hard. Oh yes!!! He taught Maths. You didn't say much to Mr Trevanion, you just answered his questions as directly as possible. You tried not to meet eye to eye with him either: his stare was deadly!

Sometimes you would have to stand by the desk and wait whilst he marked your work. I noticed his hands then. They were hard! He made me Form Captain. It was my job to let the class know what their Prep was for the next day so I must apologise to the whole class, now for the first time in thirty-four years, that one day I gave them the wrong details. This meant that the majority of them were in trouble with Mr Jones the next day for doing the wrong work.

Protest as they did it was proven I couldn't have given the wrong information as there were a number of boys who had completed the same work as me. They naturally kept quiet because these were the ones who had copied off me! Mr Ogle taught Geography which I liked. I was good at locating the Amazon mouth, the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn, the Nile, etc, on a blank map of the world with pinpoint precision. But Mr Ogle was an arty-farty type of teacher into music and art as well. He seemed to swan around in his black gown and couldn't be taken too seriously.

English and Latin were taught by Mr Glanfield Glanners. I'm not sure why I don't remember much about him. I suited Latin as it was very regimented, but unfortunately being good in Latin at Brambletye proved completely useless for any application in the rest of my life. Mr Glanfield lived in a room at the end of the dormitory corridor, up a short flight of stairs. I only got whacked by Mr Glanfield once with a hair brush and I deserved it for being an irritating little shit in the dormitory after lights out.

It was he who also developed the "sitting in" form of punishment. For minor mis-demeanors you could get a 15 minute "sit in" for each offence up to a maximum of an hour's worth. When the rest of the school was free to play, anyone on a "sit in" was required to sit upright, in silence, facing forward, in a classroom for just you, a Master to watch over you and any other miscreants doing their "sit in".

If you accrued more than an hour's worth of "sit in", you not only had to do your time, but were sent down to see the Headmaster for a bit of serious talking, and maybe a whacking too! Learning the dates of births and deaths of every English King and Queen, major battle and historical event from until the 20th Century by heart, now doesn't seem such a waste of time when you bump into a foreign tourist who knows British Empire history better than you do.

But I couldn't trust the History teacher whose name I conveniently cannot recall who showed slightly too much favouritism to certain boys. Science was a mix of chemistry, physics and biology taken by Mr Blencowe, a very mild man, who as headmaster had to be all things to the school. Not only did he have to lead the school in prayer and hymn in chapel, but conduct daily inspections, administor the whole school and invariably fill in for any teacher who was "away" for whatever reason.

Science was fun. Apart from the effects of burning sodium and magnesium we had everything from breeding locusts to hatching chicks and copulating Xenopus toads. I remember Mr Blencowe saying something about injecting the toads to make them breed. I know at the time I thought the whole matter strangely peculiar: why was the male, scrabbling franticly at the top of the tank and the female lying completely breathless at the bottom?

There were eggs everywhere! This was not mating as I knew it. Normally it is the male that is exhausted! It's taken 34 years for Mr Blencowe to admit he was supposed to give the female a larger dose, but he gave it to the male by mistake! Music lessons were the worry. Singing was not my strength but I learned, as a matter of self-preservation, to mime quite well. Mr Sharpe didn't just have a sharp tongue; his hand could to do some damage too. This didn't just happen in music lessons, but more memorably in chapel rehearsing for the main Sunday service.

We would have to sing all the hymns and psalms selected for the next day's service. Mr Sharpe would sit in the organ pit, fingers and feet bouncing off the organ keys and pedals. With back to us, suddenly he wouldn't be happy with what he was hearing, leap out of the pit and race to the pew where he thought the wrong sound was coming from. Miming was no good at this point: you had to start singing quickly — and in tune too!

Without the rhythm and backing of the organ it was doubly difficult and we had to continue to sing as he would come along our row, ear cocked to what we sang. If he heard the wrong note a hand would flash out so fast: "Whack! I distinctly remember the row of five classrooms partitioned off from each other by wooden folding doors. At prep or when letter writing on Sunday the doors were folded back to allow one teacher to oversee everyone as they worked in silence. With the partitions closed during the day, we sat in cast iron framed desks with a flip up seat.

There was an ink well filled regularly with a jug of the blue stuff. It was often spilt and some boys had significant indelible stains on various parts of their school uniform. Ink was used as an offensive weapon too, either flicked from the nibs of fountain pens or launched as a sodden ball of blotting paper into the front rows of the classroom.

In one English lesson I remember a classmate taking several thick rubber bands, placing them over the tip of forefinger and thumb to form a catapault, and then placing a pellet of folded card into the "V", pulling it back, until the elastic would stretch no more before firing it into the bare neck of the boy immediately in front of him. All hell broke loose then and I had to quickly withdraw both hands from under the desk lid where I had been constructing a Concorde shaped aeroplane out of a felt tip pen body, some paperclips and a folded exercise book cover.

There were regular intervals in the day to run off energy, shout and run about. These were often five or ten minute spells between chapel and lessons, tea and chapel, prep and bed along with morning breaktime and after lunch —unless you were a junior of course. In the winter and spring term we changed into our sports gear after lunch. We only played football in the winter term, and rugby in the spring term. In summer, games were played after the afternoon break and we always played cricket.

Playing football and rugby in the colder, wetter months, every day was not particularly pleasant. Apart from being hacked to death by Hennicker-Heaton's boots, it was normally wet and cold. Being in the lower league playing fields and being refereed by Colonel Molesworth meant a long trudge from the playing fields up to the school. I hated how his military precision required us to play until the second hand of his watch hit the hour when some of the younger masters, watching the rain clouds gather, would blow the whistle early.

Two hundred and forty hot, sweaty and wet boots were taken off and hung up in the small lean-to boot shed which stank like a giant mud wrestlers armpit, before the boys went up to shower. Colonel Molesworth's troop, coming from the furthest field, always arrived last to find the changing rooms awash with muddy water and clods of grass, the wooden duck boards barely allowing you to change into dry clothes only by hanging yourself on the clothes hooks, and reaching down to pull your socks on.

If it was too wet to play games, we had to don our macintoshs and "gum" boots and walk up and down the school drive. Normally after two laps from one end to other you were allowed back inside out of the rain! Colonel Molesworth would call out, "Left, right, left, right"………c'mon chaps! Afternoon tea comprised of filing past to pick up your Marmite sandwich jam on Sundays and third of a pint of milk bottle. These were consumed whilst each boy sat on his allocated locker surrounding the main hall.

Every day we would pass the crates of milk on the way to breakfast. In summer they sat in the sun and were still there at 3. Sometimes you could barely press the bottle top to remove it because the pressure had built up so much, and when you could, you would find the top half of the milk completely solid, curdled and sour.

Some would clamp a hand over the bottle, shake it vigorously and swallow the lot in one. Some would put it on the floor, and whilst sat on the locker, "knock it over by mistake". This normally resulted in them being given another one to drink!!! After games it was back into the classroom for more lessons until teatime. Too often it was bland macaroni cheese - just macaroni cheese on a plate which was abhorred by every boy.

Still were to come "Prep", our homework session of homework carried out in silence in the classroom another parade and chapel service before we normally had half an hour or so of play before bed. With juniors tucked up in bed by 6. Even the oldest boys had to be in bed by 8. Saturday was a "half-day". Lessons and chapel Sunday service rehearsal watch out for Mr Sharpe in the morning followed by freetime in the afternoon. Freetime could be spent in many ways. There was a boating pond.

Electric boats were rare then, and there was certainly no radio control. Most boats were either free sailing yachts or clockwork powered. We could play rounders, fly model planes, roller skate, do woodwork or pottery, go in the monkey-climb or into the woods. There were marionettes and a steam engine Club too. There were great Chestnut trees so the school went conker mad in October.

The school drives were lined with rhododendron bushes and you could in places climb through the bushes without touching the ground for up to yards or so in places. Amongst these boys had dens as they did in the bracken filled bushes of the woods. We had khaki coloured jackets that made us quite camouflaged and apart from the dens there were caverns dug out of the sandstone.

These could have been dangerous, but despite having fires in them, the odd roof collapse and "wars" between different groups I'm not aware that there were any casualties. Sunday was different. Instead of lessons we had the full service in the chapel lasting 75 minutes. This sometimes seemed quite interminable, especially when the sun was shining outside, but you couldn't relax because the headmaster's wife, teachers and matrons filled the pews behind you.

And then it was to letter writing. We had to write one letter every week. I nearly always wrote to my parents in Germany. It tended to get a bit repetitive although the scores and names could normally be alternated on a regular basis. The First Eleven played Ashdown House and we won 5 —2. The Second Eleven lost Crompton and Wallis 2 have got German measles and have gone to the sick bay for three days. Only 62 days to go until the end of term and I am looking forward to seeing you for the first time in 3 months ".

Normally we had to bring writing pads to school with us at the start of each term. The trick was to get a small one with widely spaced lines so that Colonel Molesworth's demand for all letters to be two full pages didn't require too many words.

Whether it was censorship or not, we had to take them to the front of the class for the teacher to read before we could "finish" which normally on a Sunday meant escape into the woods. Young as we were, the confines of the school were exactly that. There were areas you would never go in. In the woods there was only a small fence that marked the limit of where we were allowed to go. It might only have been a two strand barbed wire fence but I never crossed it.

It was as if there was a hidden Nazi watchtower ready to machine gun you if you touched the tripwire. The limits were marked by a two bar metal fence or the drives in other directions, easily enough crossed, but like the shimmering lake, in four years that I was there, what lay outside was not part of my world. But apparently there were two escapes in my time at the school. All of a sudden there were rumours that someone had done a runner, but shortly afterwards the school propaganda system kicked in and the "hero" became someone taken out of school urgently to visit a dying grandmother.

I think we bathed twice a week. We lined up in the bathroom, with three tubs, where we would take turns to leap in. I don't think the water was changed, and matron would wash our hair. Every week we had a "sock" night or a "pants" night when everyone would throw that item in big baskets to be washed. Jumpers, shirts and trousers were washed less frequently.

Only seniors, and only if they were over 5ft, could wear long trousers. At least once a term we were weighed and our height was recorded. Presumably the details helped our parents to recognise us when they next saw us! I do remember a few "special" events.

We occasionally were shown a film in the library. Apart from Treasure Island and The Robe these normally frightened me, especially the one of the headless horsemen attacking people in the dark! I only saw television a few times. There were some very basic " watch and learn" type physics programs in black and white but the only other thing I saw on TV was a fuzzy grey, live, image of the some men walking on the moon, for the first time.

We had some Spanish guy with long, horny nails come and play classical guitar, which seemed extremely tedious for us and him, and some cowboy who came and shot some balloons in the main hall. Every year there was a school play. I was too young to be in Oliver. Without girls in the school female parts had to be played by boys. It was whispered that one master reputedly quite fancied Cadicott-Bull who played Nancy. On the same basis I was quite glad I wasn't too attractive in my blonde pigtails, pink dress and Bo-Peep hood as a sailor's girl in the Pirates of Penzance.

Playing a black cannibal in HMS Pinafore was much less dubious! There were visitors to the school. Unfortunately one of these was the school dentist. Once a week we got sweets. A table was set up on the main hall stage and class by class we were taken to line up and chose our sweets. We each had a shilling with which you could get two handfuls of packets of sweets.

Then decimalisation came in and we were robbed! Our shilling had become 5p. Straightaway we could only get about half as much. If we weren't robbed here, there were other chances to take advantage of us. Every so often a long haired traveller we called the "Swindler" parked near the school.

He had a Commer van. It was stacked with miniature chess sets, models, pen-knives and games. Since leaving the school I've never understood why he was given access as he must have obtained his name and reputation from somewhere.

But the knives were the most frequently bought items either for activities in the woods or for playing "splits" where two opponents face each other, with two knives. Each in turn throws their knife into the ground, the opponent having to stretch one foot to the knife leading to them eventually doing the splits.

Whilst everyone had a knife and some might come close in this game I was never aware of any knives being used as weapons. Anyhow, if in any sort of confrontation all you had to do was raise a hand and shout "Pax" meaning "Peace" in Latin and for some mysterious reason you were safe. Similarly if a prowling Master was spotted when boys were doing something they shouldn't, the warning word, "Cave" pronounced "K. V" and meaning "warning" in Latin was urgently passed from boy to boy. There was also a barber who visited a school.

Everyone got a cut and there was never any discussion over which style would suit. We all got the same. Strange that we sat in a small room having our hair cut next to a large glass case of British stuffed birds. I wondered if we would turn out the same. There were tennis courts and a swimming pool at the school. I didn't take tennis, but one summer a keep fit regime was started. At about 7. I remembering it lasting a week or so, and then strangely we never did it again.

We had rehearsals for Sports Day, practising marching onto the fields, when we would line up in front of the parents in white shorts, T-shirts and rubber plimsolls. We had to compete in at least two events. Not a natural runner I actually surprised myself by getting into the heats of the yard hurdles one year.

I couldn't jump consistently high enough to ensure I could clear the hurdles, so I developed a technique to deliberately hit the hurdle but make sure I never tripped on it. I was glad when they introduced a new sport called, "Throwing the cricket ball". Requiring one to take a short run and throw the ball as far as you could in the general direction of "away from you", it was a shame they never introduced this at national level as this might have been something I could have done reasonably well at.

I had a garden. Those that wanted one were given a six by six plot to till. That's six feet by six feet. Almost everyone who had one turned them to carrots, radishes, lettuces and nasturtiums, which we were persuaded we could eat. Some added these into their Marmite sandwiches and gave mixed reviews. Swimming at Brambletye was definitely to be avoided unless you were a frog or a newt…….. Fed by a stream, this "pit" was filthy for all but a week of the year.

It might have been natural, for it was full of the flora and fauna of East Sussex, but it was icy cold even in the middle of summer. Forced to swim its length as a test I would willingly have covered the distance at the fastest possible speed if it hadn't been for the heart seizures and cramps I got when first entering the water. Fortunately I never showed enough promise to get in the swimming team. How some boys could enthusiastically take up diving I shall never know. In quieter times I enjoyed playing billiards in the library.

Also there was a reasonable selection of books but it was Hornblower and the World War Two escape stories I enjoyed most. This was partly lived out in the upper reaches of the school. Removing some of the wood panels in the bathroom, we found we could climb into the roof space and travel extensively throughout the length and breadth of the school at night, above the dormitories and master's bedrooms.

If this had been Colditz we would have built a glider up here and escaped to freedom! Some of the fixed steel ladder fire-escapes added to the Colditz feel. Forbidden to use them unless there was a fire practice or real emergency, they were actually so dangerous it was only very rarely we went down them even in a drill. Some steep stairs led to the sick bay in the highest part of the school. Catching something highly contagious was quite desirable as long as it wasn't too life threatening.

This meant you were isolated in the sick bay, totally exempt from the normal routine, far from the reach of masters and officers and safely tucked up in the motherly care of the matrons. This was the place to have a good time! An outbreak of measles and chicken-pox was of little use to me as I had reasonable resistance to most diseases and only fell to them when most of the school had already got it.

This meant the sick bay was already full and I usually ended up confined to my dormitory back under the gaze of the masters and officers. On the return to each term posted on the notice board there would be all the important dates: start and finish of term, half term, Easter holidays, etc.

When I first started at school we were all boarders — day pupils didn't start until A half term or Easter seemed such luxury. Normally I went to my grandparents who lived nearby. Once there were about four of us who had nowhere to go. We got to watch television and have jam sandwiches in Mr Ogle's bungalow as compensation!

I used to fly unaccompanied to my parents in Germany each holiday or to Wick when they moved to the north of Scotland. Once my brother and I were caught up in the effects of a strike at Edinburgh airport. From time to time they added cut outs of certain articles from the daily newspapers and I remember regular features on the Vietnam War and Cassius Clay who would fight any man in the ring with his fists, but refused to fight in a war.

Mail used to arrive regularly and was handed out after breakfast. Seeing my parents only in between terms, I felt particularly lucky having such loving parents who ensured I was always well supplied with very regular, long letters every week. Other boys, some sons of diplomatic staff based in Embassies around the world, saw their parents very rarely, not even going home in the holidays sometimes.

Some were lucky to even get a card on their birthday. But most received a parcel from home on their birthday. These were handed out on the matron's landing where they had to be opened in front of the staff. Food, sweets and money were immediately confiscated to be saved and supplied to the individual on a rationed basis.

The school changed quite a bit towards the end of my time there as Mr Fowler-Watt was phased in as Headmaster. He had an aggressive look to him and the style of the school became more progressive. Unlike Mr Blencowe who had more of a pained look on his face when a boy's behavior frustrated him, Mr Fowler-Watt could explode in rage. Extensions were built to the school, and new Portacabin classes positioned on the ground that was once my garden. And then another class of boy arrived; the day boys, namby pambies who went home to their Mummies every night, and arrived by car, freshly washed and dressed each morning.

There was even talk of girls joining the school soon! What was the place coming to?! The difference could not have been more extreme. I passed into the comprehensive school with girls! This was a lucky streak as they were all sons and daughters of nuclear physicists, doctors and engineers imported from the higher echelons of the fast breeder nuclear industry, the Royal Navy and Rolls Royce. Even though I was always towards the lower end of the class, as each year went by, I was dragged along by the very high standards so that on finishing some 30 of the 32 in the class went on to University.

Each night I would endure a journey involving two buses taking an hour and a quarter, sometimes battling through blizzards in the dark to deposit my brother, the cattleman's son and I at the end of the mile and a half farm road. We had the freedom to drive our own cars from there to the house even at the age of thirteen. Which type of school was best for me? Both were best. Brambletye undoubtedly taught me self-discipline and respect, kept me fit and healthy.

But without life at the comprehensive school I could have been scared of the outside world, completely institutionalised by the limits of the school boundaries and routines. But perhaps I should thank Brambletye for making me want to explore more, starting me on a journey in life that has so far taken me to almost 60 countries. Married now for twenty-five years, with three fine children and director of a highly respected business at Manchester airport I look back on life so far with no regrets and fond memories of my years at Brambletye.

I am what I am much because of Brambletye. It's not all good: my wife still has to tell me to change my socks and underwear more frequently! My name never did get on those big boards in the main hall, but featuring in four separate photos in Peter Blencowe's history of the school makes me realise that even though I never made the First Eleven, Second Eleven or even Third Eleven in football, it was the mix of characters and abilities that made the school what it was and every boy can be very proud to have been part of its history.

I was surprised, in , to discover Brambletye Preparatory School had risen to become the most expensive prep school in the country. It is often referred to as one of the greatest rock songs of all time. The song has three sections, each one progressively increasing in tempo and volume. The song begins in a slow tempo with acoustic instruments guitar and recorders before introducing electric instruments. The final section is an uptempo hard rock arrangement highlighted by Page's intricate guitar solo accompanying Plant's vocals that end with the plaintive a cappella line: "And she's buying a stairway to heaven".

It was the most requested song on FM radio stations in the United States in the s, despite never having been officially released as a single there. Page then returned to Island Studios to record his guitar solo. According to Page, he wrote the music "over a long period, the first part coming at Bron-Yr-Aur one night".

Page always kept a cassette recorder around, and the idea for "Stairway" came together from bits of taped music:I had these pieces, these guitar pieces, that I wanted to put together. I had a whole idea of a piece of music that I really wanted to try and present to everybody and try and come to terms with.

Bit difficult really, because it started on acoustic, and as you know it goes through to the electric parts. But we had various run-throughs [at Headley Grange] where I was playing the acoustic guitar and jumping up and picking up the electric guitar. Robert was sitting in the corner, or rather leaning against the wall, and as I was routining the rest of the band with this idea and this piece, he was just writing.

I had these sections, and I knew what order they were going to go in, but it was just a matter of getting everybody to feel comfortable with each gear shift that was going to be coming. Led Zeppelin bassist John Paul Jones recalled this presentation of the song to him following its genesis at Bron-Yr-Aur:Page and Plant would come back from the Welsh mountains with the guitar intro and verse.

I literally heard it in front of a roaring fire in a country manor house! I picked up a bass recorder and played a run-down riff which gave us an intro, then I moved into a piano for the next section, dubbing on the guitars. In an interview he gave in , Page elaborated:I do have the original tape that was running at the time we ran down "Stairway To Heaven" completely with the band.

I'd worked it all out already the night before with John Paul Jones, written down the changes and things. All this time we were all living in a house and keeping pretty regular hours together, so the next day we started running it down. There was only one place where there was a slight rerun. For some unknown reason Bonzo couldn't get the timing right on the twelve-string part before the solo. Other than that it flowed very quickly. The first attempts at lyrics, written by Robert Plant next to an evening log fire at Headley Grange, were partly spontaneously improvised and Page claimed, "a huge percentage of the lyrics were written there and then".

Jimmy Page was strumming the chords and Robert Plant had a pencil and paper. Plant later said that suddenly,My hand was writing out the words, 'There's a lady is sure [sic], all that glitters is gold, and she's buying a stairway to heaven'.

I just sat there and looked at them and almost leapt out of my seat. The first line begins with that cynical sweep of the hand The lyrics of the song reflected Plant's current reading. The singer had been poring over the works of the British antiquarian Lewis Spence, and later cited Spence's Magic Arts in Celtic Britain as one of the sources for the lyrics to the song.

In November , Page dropped a hint of the new song's existence to a music journalist in London:It's an idea for a really long track You know how "Dazed and Confused" and songs like that were broken into sections? Well, we want to try something new with the organ and acoustic guitar building up and building up, and then the electric part starts It might be a fifteen-minute track.

Page stated that the song "speeds up like an adrenaline flow". He explained:Going back to those studio days for me and John Paul Jones, the one thing you didn't do was speed up, because if you sped up you wouldn't be seen again. Everything had to be right on the meter all the way through. And I really wanted to write something which did speed up, and took the emotion and the adrenaline with it, and would reach a sort of crescendo.

And that was the idea of it. That's why it was a bit tricky to get together in stages. The band's record label, Atlantic Records was keen to issue this track as a single, but the band's manager Peter Grant refused requests to do so in both and The upshot of that decision was that record buyers began to invest in the fourth album as if it were a single.

The song consists of several distinct sections, beginning with a quiet introduction on a finger-picked six-string guitar and four recorders in a Renaissance music style ending at and gradually moving into a slow electric middle section — , then a long guitar solo — , before the faster hard rock final section to , ending with a short vocals-only epilogue.

Plant sings the opening, middle and epilogue sections in his mid vocal range, but sings the hard rock section in his higher range which borders on falsetto. Written in the key of A minor, the song opens with an arpeggiated, finger-picked guitar chord progression with a chromatic descending bassline A-G -G-F -F. John Paul Jones contributed overdubbed wooden bass recorders in the opening section he used a Mellotron and, later, a Yamaha CP70B Grand Piano and Yamaha GX1 to synthesise this arrangement in live performances [ and a Hohner Electra-Piano electric piano in the middle section.

The sections build with more guitar layers, each complementary to the intro, with the drums entering at The extended Jimmy Page guitar solo in the song's final section was played for the recording on a Fender Telecaster given to him by Jeff Beck an instrument he used extensively with the Yardbirds plugged into a Supro amplifier,although in an interview he gave to Guitar World magazine, Page also claimed, "It could have been a Marshall, but I can't remember".

Three different improvised solos were recorded, with Page agonising about deciding which to keep. Page later revealed, "I did have the first phrase worked out, and then there was the link phrase. I did check them out beforehand before the tape ran. Another interesting aspect of the song is the timing of the lead-up to the famous guitar solo. This makes the rhythm figure challenging for some musicians, but adds a feeling of anticipation to the approaching guitar solo.

Sound engineer Andy Johns recalls the circumstances surrounding the recording of Page's famous solo:I remember Jimmy had a little bit of trouble with the solo on "Stairway to Heaven" Nowadays you sometimes spend a whole day doing one thing.

Back then, we never did that. We never spent a very long time recording anything. I remember sitting in the control room with Jimmy, he's standing there next to me and he'd done quite a few passes and it wasn't going anywhere. I could see he was getting a bit paranoid and so I was getting paranoid. I turned around and said "You're making me paranoid! Then bang!

On the next take or two he ripped it out. According to Page, "Stairway to Heaven" It had everything there and showed the band at its best Not talking about solos or anything, it had everything there. We were careful never to release it as a single. It was a milestone for us. Every musician wants to do something of lasting quality, something which will hold up for a long time and I guess we did it with "Stairway".

I don't know whether I have the ability to come up with more. I have to do a lot of hard work before I can get anywhere near those stages of consistent, total brilliance. The inaugural public performance of the song took place at Belfast's Ulster Hall on 5 March However, Page stated about an early performance at the LA Forum, before the record had even come out, that:I'm not saying the whole audience gave us a standing ovation, but there was this sizable standing ovation there.

And I thought: 'This is incredible, because no one's heard this number yet. This is the first time they're hearing it! And that was at the L. Forum, so I knew we were onto something with that one. The world radio premiere of "Stairway to Heaven" was recorded at the Paris Cinema on 1 April , in front of a live studio audience, and broadcast three days later on the BBC.. The song was performed at almost every subsequent Led Zeppelin concert, only being omitted on rare occasions when shows were cut short for curfews or technical issues.

The band's final performance of the song was in Berlin on 7 July , which was also their last concert until 10 Dec at London's O2 Arena; the version was the longest, lasting almost fifteen minutes, including a seven and a half-minute guitar solo. Jimmy Page used a double-necked guitar to perform "Stairway to Heaven" live. When playing the song live, the band would often extend it to over ten minutes, with Page playing an extended guitar solo and Plant adding a number of lyrical ad-libs, such as "Does anybody remember laughter?

For performing this song live, Page used a Gibson EDS double neck guitar so he would not have to pause when switching from a six to a twelve string guitar. By , the song had a regular place as the finale of every Led Zeppelin concert. However, after their concert tour of the United States in , Plant began to tire of "Stairway to Heaven": "There's only so many times you can sing it and mean it It just became sanctimonious.

By the late s, Plant made his negative impression of the song clear in interviews. In , he stated:I'd break out in hives if I had to sing "Stairway to Heaven" in every show. I wrote those lyrics and found that song to be of some importance and consequence in , but 17 years later, I don't know.

It's just not for me. I sang it at the Atlantic Records show because I'm an old softie and it was my way of saying thank you to Atlantic because I've been with them for 20 years. But no more of "Stairway to Heaven" for me. However, by the mids Plant's views had apparently softened. The first few bars were played alone during Page and Plant tours in lieu of the final notes of "Babe I'm Gonna Leave You", and in November Page and Plant performed an acoustic version of the song at a Tokyo news station for Japanese television.

This song is played a whole step lower. Plant cites the most unusual performance of the song ever as being that performed at Live Aid: "with two drummers Phil Collins and Tony Thompson while Duran Duran cried at the side of the stage — there was something quite surreal about that. There are also hundreds of audio versions which can be found on unofficial Led Zeppelin bootleg recordings. According to music journalist Stephen Davis, although the song was released in , it took until before the song's popularity ascended to truly "anthemic" status.

As Page himself recalled, "I knew it was good, but I didn't know it was going to be almost like an anthem

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Y cuando tu no estas, se keda aun lado mi egoismo, pensando en ti, sabiendo que esto sera eterno. Dame alguna idea, donde pueda encontar felicidad, como la que me das con solo amarme, con tu mirada puedo continuar. Dame en este sueo, alguna razon para despertar, yo me kedo contigo, solo contigo. Cuando tu no estas, mes dura el tiempo, no se que hacerme con toda esta soledad.

Cuando tu no estas, se keda aun lado mi egoismo pensando en ti, sabiendo que esto sera eterno. Cuando tu no estas, se keda aun lado mi egoismo pensando en ti, sabiendo que esto On September 10, , the album received four nominations for the Latin Grammy Awards. The review of the album by Billboard Magazine : [7].

Her husky tone seems built for a sideways glance at breakups, sex, aging and human indifference, but it's the album's uptempo tracks that really leave an impression. Here's hoping her eloquence strikes a chord. A review from El Nuevo Herald: [8]. It was released earlier to radio stations on May 1, , and as a digital download on iTunes on May 7, The music video was shot in Mexico and was directed by Alexis Gudino.

It reached at number 22 on the Billboard Latin Pop Airplay chart. It also charted on Billboard Hot Latin Songs at The album Cualquier Dia was re-released with three songs performed acoustic with visual materials showing the making of and it also includes all the four music videos released so far. The album was released in United States and Puerto Rico only. The new edition of the album was released on October 21, Disk 1 : [18].

The album charted well on Billboard Latin Pop Albums on where it charted at Months after being on the charts, the album quickly jumped to It was later certified Disco de Oro , for shipments of 50, in Mexico alone. It has spent over 35 weeks in the chart.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Main article: Hoy Ya Me Voy. Main article: Esta Soledad. Main article: Estigma De Amor. Retrieved Archived from the original on Primera Hora in Spanish. August 15, Univision Online. Mexican Charts. May Recording Industry Association of America. Discography Awards. En Vivo Boleto De Entrada Tour

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