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It is noteworthy that while in this occasion. The text of the ate that had been freely elected in , while the composition of declaration expressed the main values of the opposition and the main house — the Sejm — was to a large extent the result of the highlighted the main lines of conflict and disagreement between contract signed at the Roundtable between the communist party liberals and leftists on the one hand and the nationalist con- and the opposition.

The text was signed by all the time. Most of them had a rather eulo- became known that the Centre would actively participate in the gizing tone with the exception of the left-wing Krytyka Poli- grand celebrations of , planned by the opposition. The gov- tyczna, that criticized all post-Solidarity elites in the Third Re- ernmental contribution to the Centre was cut from seven to four public for their disparagement of civil society and the needs of million zloty with the motivation that the institution was involved those disadvantaged in the neo-liberal economy.

Instead it nation-wide fundraising that turned out to be successful. Thus, the right-wing media Changes in the standpoints on in May and June were filled to the brim with articles about between and John Paul II, while at the same time they neglected to report The analysis of the commemoration of the 30th anniversaries about the celebrations of the June elections taking place locally of the Roundtable and the June elections demonstrates around the country.

However, in comparison to , sig- tion since it had given rise to a state that was only partially demo- nificant changes have occurred as to which groups and political cratic. It was only with the electoral victory of PiS in that a actors hold the respective positions. She referred in this stance was articulated by much wider circles. Indeed, they remained more reserved debates. A specially President Duda. This evoked strong reactions from all sides, forcing Zybertowicz It is noteworthy that the initiative to organize the impres- to apologize.

The analysis above Solidarity became a big manifestation of unity of the opposition, indicates that ten years later, at the 30th anniversary of , it offsetting existing disagreements. The had voiced a mixed stance towards the Roundtable, joined the anniversaries of both the Roundtable and the June 4 elections celebration. He was treated with veneration although in previ- were officially celebrated, although in a much more modest way ous years he had been marginalized and often criticized by both than by previous liberal governments.

In the official speeches the liberals and the left. They also praised the the liberal and the leftist opposition in the face of the upcoming June elections as a manifestation of the will of the Polish elections. Consequently, in the opposition played the role people. At the same time they expressed their reservations, of mnemonic warrior. They defended the achievements of Soli- propounding the theory of a lost opportunity in the aftermath darity in and indirectly also the Third Republic, despite the of these events.

Thus, in one could ment of Polish democracy. The decommunization proposed by expect direct clashes between the right and the opposition over Olszewski that might have overcome, in their view, the negative the commemoration of the anniversaries. However, as demon- effects of the Roundtable, was halted, allowing the former com- strated above, PiS chose instead to avoid direct confrontations. Antoni structures. It is noteworthy that instead of tant events in Polish history and a source of national pride.

Evidence Poles. Thus, it can be concluded that the right changed its June Thus, refuting the important historical achievements of abnegators in As mentioned in the introduction with reference to James in order to compromise the Third Republic and legitimize their V. Wertsch, the members of mnemonic communities produce own idea of rebuilding the Polish state under PiS leadership.

However, the same study plot line. These general, schematic patterns of interpretation53 pointed out that this strategy of being mnemonic warriors and are instrumental for the social construction of groups. They are promoting the negative assessment of did not pay off in the often part of their identity claims.

They become mnemonic hab- form of increased popular support. PiS lost both the presidential its, are emotionally loaded and used for making judgments about elections in and the parliamentary elections in to the narrative truths. It orig- not forged a coherent memory narrative of The memory inates in 19th century Polish Romantic culture and since then it of has been used to polarize Polish society. As shown by previous research, this tion of the 20th anniversary of the fall of communism in Poland generic narrative has been employed to make sense of numer- still applies, as shown in the analysis above.

In , thirty ous historical events in Polish history, including the activities of years after the events of , Polish collective memory is still the Solidarity movement in — These findings might not be surprising. Much more the semi-democratic elections of as a great victory of the interesting is the discovery that the positive memory of Polish people over communist rulers that opened up the road to has proved resistant to the revaluations proposed by the Polish democracy for Poland and for other nations in the communist right, and that PiS restructured its politics of memory in re- bloc is very much in line with that narrative template.

It puts sponse to this fact. Poland in the position of leader in the struggle against the com- Since coming to power in , PiS has used the public media munist system, resonates with the national self-image and boosts to hammer out its negative message about , but in a vast national pride.

The embeddedness of the memory of in these Poland, about the miraculous interventions by Virgin Mary from national generic narratives made it difficult to challenge. As I finding points to the limits on the freedom of memory actors have demonstrated in my previous research on Polish national who want to construct new versions of the past and make them myths and their use by the Solidarity movement, a number of broadly accepted by conducting specific memory politics.

Memo- unexpected, positive turning points in Polish history have been ries are dynamic but not freely molded. The case of the Polish inscribed in this mythological narrative template, including the memory of gives evidence of an inertia built into the collec- emergence of Solidarity in This might have made the Army in Since the 30th anniversary of occurred the same within the opposition knew that the Roundtable, as a non-revo- year as parliamentary elections, PiS saw engaging in battles over lutionary moment, fitted less well than the June elections with this memory at this point in time as a disadvantage and adopted the established patterns of meaning-making of the past in Polish a more cautious, less confrontational strategy.

Before the elections, PiS wanted to show a society For more than two decades the representatives of the post- exhausted by continuous political quarrels that the party was Solidarity revolutionary group as well as their followers among capable of a more moderate approach to mnemonic issues. Thus, the strategy embraced Papers on Solidarity Movement, January The strategy included practices of active forgetting Past.

The Politics of Memory and Commemoration Oxford University Press, the anniversary and production of the ambiguous interpreta- For the chapter on Poland see 60— Social Research, vol. Misztal, Barbara, Theories of Social Remembering, Maidenhead- anchoring it more strongly in Polish narrative templates. This is why they became mem- right. See also Szczerbiak, , op. This analysis stock and looking ahead.

Vienna: Vienna University of Business shows that the memory of in Poland remains a hot and con- and Economics, , 76— For a closer analysis see Stanley, Bill tentious issue in Polish politics. A Problem with no Semantic Solution. Po wizycie u February 6, The results were made accessible to September 8, See also Wertsch , op.

For specific examples in connection with the Solidarity www. Lund University, , — September 10, Rok 59 M June 5, Museum of the Second Photographs Several photo albums contain traces of from World War II represent a significant part of this category. In a macabre twist of fate, also on the label. Possible a name on a company, the photo- this proved the salvation of many of them.

The city quickly became overrun with subheading? The ghetto propaganda companies worked, as did the Ministry of Public was gradually emptied of inhabitants. When the ghetto, which Enlightenment and Propaganda which was headed by Joseph had effectively been transformed into a labor camp, was to be Goebbels from On July 2, 1, Jews anyone escaping from the burning buildings were mowed down were shot inside the castle walls.

On July 4, 3, were shot in with machine gun fire. One of them was year-old Shmuel Jews were among the victims of the massacre. The year before, Shilo, who miraculously managed to survive by hiding during thousands of Jewish refugees fleeing from German-occupied three separate raids.

Every evening, he recounts, And he never did. Now he buys tomatoes and apples, stop- Germans and Ukrainian police would come down and shine ping to chat with Ukrainian pensioners. The beams passed above their The old pharmacy where they hid is still a pharmacy today. They breathed with their mouths into the building where he hid under the floor. Then one day they heard people mother and all his relatives, friends and schoolmates were shot.

Boys and girls. And I miss the Jew- windows were flapping in the wind. We knew they were all dead. After the liberation by the Red Army, Shmuel searched the city for relatives and friends. I refuge by a Polish family. Shmuel and was the only one. Then dele sat, this is where Musiel sat AND down to the river and wanted to throw castle, Shmuel saw his mother for the last time.

But then I ran away from there like a demon, in order to defeat death. Then he childhood city of Lutsk and a brutally crawled out and escaped through a window. He wandered for a crushed Jewish world where all his relatives were exterminated long time in the outskirts of the city and the forests, not knowing along with most of their fellow Jews, Shmuel fell ill back home where to go. He passed away at the beginning of Yom Kippur in late fered him refuge for a few days.

For a long time he hid in a hole in September. At the end of the film, he is seen in a photograph the ground. When he eventually walked back to Lutsk to search sitting with his wife, four children and nine grandchildren. They be- gan planning to escape. One photo is full of love, showing a united by Ukrainian police and German military and police.

He jumped out through the window during Lutsk conveys the enormous love and respect his son feels for the night and eventually joined the partisans. And he found his him, and there is every reason to believe that his other three chil- sister Necha. After many twists and turns, they eventually emi- dren and nine grandchildren feel the same way.

Shmuel Shilo would go on to found The Other photo is full of hate, taken by a photographer from a kolkhoz and a theater, and became a highly popular actor. At the market, the stalls are brim- conditions; as exotic figures to be taunted, heckled, photo- ming with colorful fruits and succulent vegetables in long rows. The time for behaving in this typically Jewish way is over.

Now they are being put to work, which may seem unusual but is considerably more useful than their activities up till now. The propaganda companies were established and trained be- ginning of At their peak they employed 15, soldiers, equipped with guns, cameras, typewriters, pens, and mega- phones and loudspeakers installed on car roofs or at town squares.

The propaganda was particularly active in the final weeks before the start of the war, when propaganda against Po- land was blasted out in daily newspapers and on the radio. Her arm encircles the shoulders of a little girl while an even younger girl sits on her lap. The railway terminus was later severely bombed, and was demolished after candidates were requested, or ordered, to apply for ethnic Ger- the war. The customary typewritten label on the back of the photo- These ethnic Germans played an important role in implement- graph says: ing the new German order, including the Holocaust.

They were idealized and celebrated by the propaganda Girls from the BDM Obergau Berlin are assisting the companies and in Nazi propaganda. The latter was one of the foremost refugees as they pass through. Her most Nannen, publisher of Stern magazine; Kurt Blauhorn, editor of famous portrait, however, is that of Albert Einstein.

Robert Schosthal, escaped from the country and eventually emi- And the list goes on. The GDR also has a long list of such grated to the United States, where the Schosthal family was re- figures, including well-known film director Heinz Thiel also a united. According And their role in the Holocaust cannot be underestimated. The photograph shows around a doz- people died. They distributed anti-Semitic material to the local en people carrying young children and claimed to be refugees.

The head of refug But something is not right. The German name for Malin was Mahlen, companies. Moreover, would be in their early eighties. They may have built underground holes in destroyed by gunfire, burning houses and exploded bridges: the forest, as many did, and they may have survived in this way. Soviet forces did not reach the city following new violent battles It is difficult to draw any conclusions on the basis of their in- The seller, a woman living in France, seemed puzzled by my teraction with the German soldier behind the camera.

The moth- questions and objections. She had sorted through the album, er walking third in the line carrying a child in her arms could be removed the photographs and put them up for auction; that looking worried, and the older women behind her could be smil- was all the information she gave me.

Her knowledge of World ing. The two girls behind them seem to have an expressionless or War II history seemed limited. Instead, I embarked on my own perhaps listless gaze. But the armed photographer, who is prob- research. He or they has not made them turn around. On 13 July , the vil- They are all walking determinedly towards their unknown fate.

But among them is a photo with been proven. Hundreds of people died, as well as all their livestock. Many of the year. Some appear to be conversing. What more like bourgeois or upper middle class more information is available about the Jews from a large or medium-sized city. The city in question is picture? I write and ask the seller. It had a sizeable Jewish population, 4, people or a third Now, looking at the album page together with the other severed of the city, or perhaps even more and an even larger proportion; pictures by the same photographer, a clearer context emerges.

By then, almost all of which took place on June 30, But the infantryman who took the photo was wield- The sun was shining and we were strolling around in ing a camera instead of a rifle, at least for that brief moment.

The First Company made use of their free time A small girl walks first in the line. She clasps a bag in her hand. There is Only two of the people in the picture are men. The refugees car- no other solution for these animals. The sharpshoot- ry little with them except a few household goods. It is not clear ers joined in and [the Jews] were shot in pairs. They fell whether others are following behind them in the bushes, nor down into the graves they had dug themselves.

The girl at the front would be around ninety years old today. The young children being carried Infantryman Jan Olij from the same company also kept a diary. On July 3 he wrote: But according to Westerlund and several other sources, the Finn- ish volunteers also actively participated in the massacres and po- Hundreds of Jews are being killed.

They were forced to groms in Zolochiv. Like the volunteers from neighboring Norway dig out the murdered victims [Ukrainians] with their and Sweden, they were members of the SS Panzer Division Wik- bare hands and were then immediately shot in the same ing, who reportedly took part in their first massacre in Zolochiv. Everything is blood, blood, gunfire. The same frenzied violence prevailed everywhere, and the most cynical contempt conceivable was shown by occupying Jewish Doctor Solomon Altmann, who survived the pogroms Germans and civilians alike.

The first pogrom took the lives and massacres in Zolochiv, wrote after the war: of 2, Jews. Perhaps even more. And the photography, the documentation, the curious observation of these events — as if The first German patrols arrived in Zloczow on July 1. Ru- army tales. Finnish historian Lars Westerlund writes in a book about Finnish The outcome of the auction? The winning bid brought in al- SS volunteers: most 23, Swedish kronor, or 2, euro. SS soldiers captured of numerous titles.

The text published here is an excerpt Jews, forced them to dig graves, and then shot them or from a coming book based on travels in Poland Against this background, the first sections of this essay lem of Soviet hegemonic claims: During the carnival of widely intend to outline the rise and fall of the concept of East Central peaceful, velvet and singing revolutions, the old regimes showed Europe, and then turn towards the development of the geo- little resistance or collapsed.

August The image of East Central Europe was now shining in the light from the victorious civil societies. Euphoria was in East Central Europe as the air. In a sloppy Soviet sphere of hegemony in the s, East Central Europe translation, the acronym CEE in German repeatedly became stood for the utopia of a free, peaceful and solidary world.

Against these historical remnants, the national nomination into the background. A closer look, however, reveals a more complex situa- ries of the former Habsburg Empire and the Polish-Lithuanian tion, which has its roots in World War I. These reflections on East , not least with contributions by the Polish historian Oskar Central Europe were not based on geopolitical thinking.

On the Halecki. There, East Central Europe and the Baltic region distinct historical region. Actually, the Polish term Europa Catholic Christianity. Following this path, as see the map on page Central East- rule in East Central Europe. Politically, this meant that the concerned countries, after Wschodniej in Lublin who introduced and maintained the term , first of all wanted membership in the EU and NATO. Iver B. When there The political lesson of these debates was that at no point in time was no longer an East Central Europe, then regional expertise could East Central Europe in its social and cultural structures be was no longer required.

The new Europeans are the EU were based on such a premise. In general, the opinions no longer eager to be guided by the idea, to become quickly and about the contributions of the new member states to the EU, as smoothly adapted to the West in political and economic terms. The overview by stopped being only a dream of the elites.

This expression is gaining currency notions for the region that have been discussed as East Central these days in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe, thus far. Here, we once again have to go back to World Europe. Politicians and economists are speaking of a War I. European unification.

Despite the fact that Wirsing became a Rzeczpospolita of the Jagiellonians and was in clear contrast to propagator of NS ideology and a member of the SS and then an Russian-Panslavist ideas and German claims of hegemony over influential journalist after World War Two in West Germany ,50 Central Europe. Against this background, plans for a federa- West have parallels to the geostrategic ideas of Intermarium. The tion were once again discussed, following the same line as after book on Zwischeneuropa by the Austrian-Polish writer Otto Forst Here, my thesis is that the turn away from discourse on Mitteleuropa.

There are, of course, good reasons why the newly acquired marium. In this con- IF, FROM A CLASSICAL national-historical perspective, the German text, however, the authoritarian politicians of the interwar peri- Zwischeneuropa and the Polish Intermarium seem to be com- od are largely regarded as persons warranting the political order pletely different notions at first sight, one might also come across internally as well as externally.

In , the political scientist Jan entanglements between them. National strategies new occupation. These strategies at- a European democracy also refer to an invented foundational tempted to implement national discourses that combined hero- myth of Europe, which should support their fight, thus worsen- ism with victimization. In Poland, this discourse provoked maca- ing the intellectual climate of debates about Europe.

After the German and Soviet occupations and the expul- mentalities. Robert Menasse. Its disappearance goes along with turning away from the civil society discourse of the s. Vice versa the Eastern member which the crisis of the East, in all its possible dimen- states are no longer seen as part of a Western or Central Europe, sions, begins to spill over to us across the border?

Between history, geography and literature] Dzieje no. Najnowsze 52, no. Rudolf im Kopf, ed. Mentals maps in the Baltic Sea region], no. Introductory remarks on the research national discourses. Poland and Hungary in the European Union. Central Europe The Germans, the lost East ; on the context, see Wolfgang J. Jahrhunderts, ed. Plaschka et al. Similar: der Wissenschaften, , 3— The vast literature on the origin Doubleday, ; cf.

On the cannot be adequately referenced here. See first of all the publications by conceptual career of a term of cultural politics. Zur —94 State: New European Perspectives, ed. Wegbereiter der NS-Lebensraumpolitik? A Conceptual 33—41; and following him: Michael G. Johann P. Arnason and Natalie J. Jahrhundert [East doi Central Europe. Its divison in epochs, no. Similarly, also the title of the journal Archivum Europae geographical background and fundamental problems.

East Central und Epoche statt Raum und Zeit. A History of East O nach , no. Jahrhundert kh. Zur ed. Przyczyny upadku Polski. Odczyty, ed. Christopher Lord Copenhagen: nach dem Ersten Weltkrieg. Actually, Ideengeschichte 15, no. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp, , Loew, Polen denkt Europa, Geographies, 4—6. Scholary discourses, September 19, Jahrhunderts, vol. Debates on Europe in the age of nationalism.

Claudia Kraft and Katrin Steffen, no. A topology of Euorpean narratives in state socialism. The Vienna geographers and the origins of the M. Critical Geographies 14, no. Geographischen Gesellschaft in Wien Moczulskiego — Warszawa: Berlin, Berlin: de Gruyter, , 1. Habermas and the Public Sphere, ed. Craig J. Polen, Ostmitteleuropa und intermarium-poland-can-talk-talk-can-it-walk-walk. Poland, East Central Europe and the West. Ein deutsches eu-mitglieder-a A German federative model between East and West.

Reinhard Blomert, Hans of Europe. Ostmitteleuropaforschung jenseits von Ostmitteleuropa? The aporiae of a niche research interest in Germany. Leipzig: Teubner, , —14, Europe in-between. Wirsing, Zwischeneuropa, ; on , 9. Schulze and Andrej V.

As a criticial analyzis see Laruelle and Rivera, Imagined Geographies. There are three keywords here: identity, power and s up to the present by studying official inquiries dur- authority. But Harvey also uses a fourth important word that ing this period. It shows how a relatively implicitly than explicitly.

In this essay I suggest from the mate- But there is a conceptual prehistory here too. The questions of rial at hand that this trajectory of change results from the identity, power and authority, and the issue of heritagization, development of global capitalism, which turned identity into had already come into focus in Sweden in the s.

This created a commodity. This essay concludes that in a post-heritage a huge shift in Swedish heritage politics, opening up space for a future we therefore need a new understanding of identity, an discussion on democracy. From there, Swedish heritage politics open identity, and that we need to take existential responsi- again turned to heritagization, identity, power and authority, bility for our lives. That in turn opened the door for the Swedish neo-nationalistic right-wing party Sverigede- mokraterna Sweden Democrats.

That is, as I view it, the causal order of Swedish heritage politics. The word kulturminne is and what it describes, i. From neglect such structures and objects, to remember what is actu- my perspective, though, this distinction is crucial if we want to ally not rememberable, and to care for the objects and struc- understand why the political meaning in kulturarv changed over tures because of this. We must hold in mind that this definition the decades.

Almost a hundred years earlier, real memories, but that we should remember to care for objects the word kulturarv was used officially for the first time in Sweden. Heritage and nation narration. Inquiries between and specific significance. Here it means in the middle, deriving from In this case and ac- 2.

The split, immigration and inquiries in the s. Heritage and democracy. Inquiries in the s and s. It is the historical essence of the society. It and so on. A similar pic- The National Library of Sweden has scanned a series of impor- ture arose.

I moved my attention to the Danish and Norwegian tant inquiries produced for Swedish governments between parliaments and counted digital documents. I only focused on and Before a ing the first decades of the 21st century, documents including government suggests some new legislation, for example, a com- the word kulturarv existed in the hundreds.

Most interesting is mittee investigates the matter. The outcome is published as an that there is a peak in the Danish Parliament in the years around SOU. I have found that among many hundreds of SOUs since the The reason for this is that the Danish Parliament was dis- s, at least 40 are related to heritage issues. What I have ish narrative between the signified and the signifier, that is found is that to begin with the words have a clear definition. Even though kulturarv is used in a similar way in Swedish as From the s and onwards, a narrative has developed that heritage is in English, it is not an accurate translation.

Instead, today, where the word kulturminne has been almost totally re- the word points to old objects and structures whose meaning placed by the word kulturarv. The logic here is that liberalization and globalization of the economies is followed by a stronger need for personal identification.

This is at least what follows from the SOU. Hence, as we shall see below, there has been a semantic shift in the meaning of the word kulturarv. All translations in the following text are mine. Stage 1. Inquiries between and I have not been able to clarify the etymology of the Swedish word kulturarv. The first SOU was published in Out of just over fifty in- quiries that year, two are about Swedish kulturminne.

Swed- ish heritage legislation is among the oldest in the world, dating back to at least SOU In the second volume, kulturarv is used three times and on three different pages. The word kulturminne is used 77 times on 45 pages. Prime Minister, Per Albin Hansson — , gave a famous Kulturarv also includes the whole range of kulturminne.

Instead, we find the same focus on the nation and these alien items from the past and give them an eternal life. The Commission- Science, it was stated in the inquiries, is the key issue, because ers did however use the word allmoge country folk. There is nothing in the word kulturminne or kulturarv in tricts might lose the allmoge kulturarv owing to a radical mod- the SOU from this time that suggests any form of exclusion or in- ernization of society. The industrialization and modernization clusion.

Instead, kulturarv belongs to all inhabitants of the nation, of Swedish society began in the late 19th century and in the s or rather all future generations, regardless of who they might be. What this suggests is that the Commissioners and the seven pages, but kulturminne is still in the majority. It was once politicians in the s used an older definition of kulturarv in more a question of the nation and its inhabitants.

But something a new political setting, underlining its nationalistic importance important had happened. The nation had changed. In , instead of its national importance. Having nationalistic importance is instead a Stage 2. The split, immigration question of political importance, rather than objective scientific and inquiries in the s importance. Today we would not draw that sort of line, but that As we have seen, the word kulturarv was used sparingly in the was the argument earlier.

What we also find here is a focus on a inquiries discussed so far. The Commissioners used the word specific form of kulturarv i. Minorities and indigenous groups were not the two previous inquiries. Thus, there was a small but impor- mentioned, but that does not mean that they were excluded. The Commissioners suspect that the allmoge In , an inquiry dealing with historical buildings was pub- might disappear owing to changes in the society, which meant lished in two volumes.

People from Finland and Italy, but also from rv. New Cultural Politics was published, 17 it concerned the question The next SOU to deal with kulturarv was published in the of rethinking cultural politics, but no shift in the use of the three mids. The words is evident. Kulturminne is still more common than kultur- economy was strong, and many social reforms were delivered. The word kulturminne is not mentioned at all in the first of the The inquiry shall address the degree to which society should two volumes, but kulturarv occurs nine times.

The word is, again, an tian values. Kulturarv, on the other hand, is a form of umbrella SOUs. If all the previous SOUs were free from conflicts of inter- concept that includes all kulturminne. This inheritance belongs est, this one was not. This can be questioned, of course, because what According to the inquiry, immigrants do not carry with them are neutrality and science?

It seems to me that the Commission- any kulturminne. Only Sweden has such items. Immigrants carry ers understood this and were therefore careful when they use with them kulturarv, things, or rather traditions, that are mov- the word kulturarv. I must again stress that to remember what is not rememberable in Swedish kulturminne, this is not a consequence of explicit exclusion, but because of but it is not a part of them when they arrive in Sweden, nor of broad older definitions of kulturarv and kulturminne.

Nor Commissioners argued. It can be extremely turminne. Kulturminne became a historical entity, which kul- problematic. An inheritance turarv is not. Immigrants thus became ahistorical. The The older definition of kulturarv included what needed to difference between heritage and history, and the ahistorical be remembered as something that was not rememberable. In dimension of heritage, has been discussed by David Lowenthal, this meaning, kulturarv was not something static, but a part of a who concludes that heritage has nothing to do with history.

It tion but a tribute to the past, not a wish to understand anything even excludes history because it has nothing to do with history. Immigrant kulturarv slowly filled missed is that not having an explicitly with kulturminne, but it was a new form of kulturminne, a kultur- defined history and an historical discourse can have its advan- minne that can be translated into cultural memory, because it is tages.

What we have here is a history they are also historicized. History is something that has new definition of kulturminne adapted to a new situation. If indigenous groups and minorities have a What we are tracing here is the beginning of a discourse that history, they are historical and thus changeable over time like so- will become more ambiguous during the following decades.

In ciety in general. As we have seen Lowenthal conclude, the whole , the Commissioners were aware for the first time that kul- point with heritage is that it is static and deals with the political turarv is not an easy issue, but they believed in its possibilities in and economic present. It would therefore be a catastrophe for a multicultural Swedish society. In- for language and culture.

Back then, support for cultural projects was mostly directed towards the conservation of large historical och monuments. In the s, develop- ments were characterized by educational and scientific efforts aimed at strengthening national identity. Fig 3. This would contradict recent decades of liberal The Commissioners also repeated what was stated in earlier heritage politics favoring the heritage of indigenous groups, mi- SOUs about immigrants keeping their identity by defending and norities and immigrants.

Kulturarv was and is defined against other identities, i. Scientists, state bureaucrats, mu- between immigrant groups, minorities and a national majority. Kulturarv could not Interestingly, the Commissioners understood this, but could not be split up amongst different interest groups. Throughout the find ways to transcend their own discourse.

As an example, the s, kulturarv gradually became an issue for immigrants and Commissioners wrote that it could be very difficult to be a Sami different ethnic groups in Swedish society. If kulturarv was In , the inquiry Culture and information across borders.

Sweden was viewed abroad. Instead, it was argued that such postcolonial nation have in recent years focused on the preservation of their own states needed educational and scientific efforts to strengthen cultural heritage and the strengthening of national identity their national identity. This was in line with the definition used through different cultural political measures.

In other words, it is important to sic needs strategy that was signed by the International Labor Or- promote national and even nationalistic heritage politics in post- ganization ILO at the World Employment Conference in , colonial countries, but at the same time to oppose such perspec- as a part of a new economic world order. Something had happened, otherwise why would the indigenous groups. Commissioners discuss democracy so many times?

Swedish engagement in the postcolonial Global South might In this inquiry the word kulturarv was mentioned 60 times on not be imperialistic, which might be a too strong word, but there 49 pages. Kulturminne was not mentioned. The discourse had is a clear difference between how kulturarv is evaluated and completely shifted from kulturminne to kulturarv. The Commis- have not advanced to the level where they could accept a diver- sioners thought this was difficult enough to achieve in a school sity of kulturarv.

Instead they needed scientific knowledge and with only Swedish pupils. It is even a question of fos- one people, one religion, one history and sometimes even one tering fostran democracy, which gives everyone a possibility to race, and of course one heritage. Instead, it can be always be reconsidered. At the same time, it is clear that they be- hypothesized that Swedish heritage politics have implicitly and lieved our democracy should rank some principles above others.

Sweden alone is not to blame. They did not point to was already questioned in inquiries from the s and s, any examples, but this is irrelevant because what we see here is because Sweden then began to emphasize democratic issues, the underlying belief that kulturarv must always be evaluated in domestically and abroad. Kulturarv had become a democratic relationship to the principles of democracy.

This realization completely shatters the old idea that kultur- arv was important for self-identification. In this later definition Stage 3. The point that the Commissioners As far as I have been able to determine, the word democracy was underscore here is that kulturarv no longer can be the funda- used for the first time in an inquiry from There it was stated ment fort self-identification because some, not least immigrant that a democratic society must care for its kulturarv. The word was used 32 times on 16 but similar.

Immigrant children in multi-cultural Sweden. Nothing seems less inter- Australia have had very similar liberal and social democratic esting than the narcissistic self-study that today passes in many politics for decades. Because of heritage. Nevertheless they turned in another direction, ance in this culture ideology. The right kind of heritage culture was demo- Agenda. Its purpose was to increase the democratic impact cratic. However, the dilemma will worsen. However, exactly those Agenda kulturarv describes a peak in a discourse that was two words were used in an inquiry from The Commission- introduced during the s.

Since then, heritage has been ers wrote that technology should be used to tackle the informa- connected with Swedish democracy in one way or another. But if such technology The point of Agenda kulturarv was to take people rather than were used to spread racist and anti-democratic tendencies, it objects as its starting point.

This strategy related to the ques- had to be addressed. Another important word was the party had changed the political map. It was politically declared that people wards, right-wing groups and parties became aware that kul- employed in the heritage sector must understand that there is turarv was important for self-identification and therefore could a plurality of heritage representing something fundamental for be positively used in nationalistic politics and national ethnic many different groups and that heritage is a question of diversity identity.

The Commissioners were on a naive and dangerous path The inquiry filled pages. The word kulturminne was used when they promoted a bench or local sledding hill. Did they re- times and the word kulturarv just three times. Almost ally mean that a place where we received our first kiss or a place years later, the picture was the opposite.

The proposition where we played as kids should be turned into something that comprised pages. The word kulturminne was used 28 times, is exclusively mine and only mine for all coming generations? This Nevertheless, the four Commissioners behind the report re- means that on average, the word kulturarv was repeated three ceived high positions in the state-funded heritage sector for their times on every page. On one page it was repeated 21 times. The whole proposition is based on ambigu- ity.

Another repeated not far from it. But combining self-identification with very dynamic, democratic, individualistic, collectivistic, negotia- democracy has proven complicated. Please note ered inferior. Perhaps it is nothing nationalism and identity,54 but my point here is to underline more than a certain political rhetoric that is becoming more and what Edward Said has expressed, because of his intellectual im- more common, that is to say the politics of ambiguity. It is in this portance for such issues.

It leads to the paradox as the proposition so unfortunately shows, because there is where the Commissioners needed to balance between the two: no clear line between multi-ethnic heritage politics and the ex- on the one hand heritage as self-identification and on the other treme right, neo-nationalistic heritage politics. Neo-nationalists hand the principles of democracy. In other words, heritage can argue for nationalistic heritage politics on exactly the same as self-identification, and as it is defined in the SOU inquiries, grounds as any other can in the course of identity politics and cannot be combined with democracy because heritage as self- political polarization.

I began this essay by quoting David Harvey and his focus on This is what the Commissioners were starting to understand. What we have seen so far is that these factors have become sort of heritage. That inquiry confused nology should be used to tackle information and knowledge gaps identity, power, authority and heritagization, and so became in society.

But they clarified that if such technology were used a mishmash of everything and nothing. Still, as we have seen, to spread racist and anti-democratic tendencies, this must be the complicated term identity, or self-identification, is the most addressed. It is here that the question of self- is parallel history between the shift in the meaning of the word identification asserts itself. But the question of self-identification kulturarv between the s and today, the neo-liberalization does not mitigate the incomprehensibility of the world.

Instead, and globalization of the economy, and the advance of right-wing it makes the world even more polarized, fragmented and there- politics. I need to give a definition of neo-liberalism. According fore, one might argue, almost uninhabitable. But them, heritage is an ethnic and national marker for national self-identification. This can however imply that neo-nationalistic politics, are fixated with we are continually living with only a par- free-market capitalism and at the same time with national ethnic tial identity.

Such a partial identity is a constitutive cause of our heritage. Neo-nationalist, right-wing groups and other extreme need for an unambiguous identification process. Neo-lib- populations. I have discussed Sweden, but for a What we need therefore are new forms of co-existence that broader discussion on the commodification of heritage, see Britt go beyond identity-politics and kulturarv, which should make Baillie et al.

But when we talk about kulturarv and heritage we are tity to be locked up inside itself, inside any kulturarv. If we do talking about a quasi-inheritance. Kulturarv lacks a testament, a so, as we have seen, we risk becoming an exotic, nostalgic and narrative, a memory and especially a person-to-person transfer.

Or, perhaps even worse, we might end up believing in reaucratic administration, as we have seen. The reason for this an unachievable stability defined by drum-beating nationalists. There is no return. Springer Reference: stable and inherent, but ahistorical, identity, which makes the — Inquiry with proposals submitted by cultural protection of heritage.

Poulot, F. Bodenstein and J. Lanzarote GuiralIn, eds. We need, I would like to suggest, to move away from self-identi- Inquiry with proposals for increased protection for culturally and fication and identity-politics generated by heritage politics into historically remarkable buildings submitted by the Building Heritage a post-heritage future with an open, dynamic and democratic Inquiry]; and SOU Inquiry with proposals by the Building Heritage Inquiry].

Inquiry with proposal on constitution by summoned University, Sweden. Report submitted by the Antiquities Inquiry]. Journal of Social Archaeology, vol. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, , x. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, , Originally published in Sweden. Support for language and culture]; and SOU Agenda kulturarv.

Final Report], 5. Om det svenska Europe. University of Chicago Press, November 21, , vol. London and New York: Routledge, , — Improving 3D convolutional neural network comprehensibility via interactive visualization of relevance maps: evaluation in Alzheimer's disease. Reactive astrocyte nomenclature, definitions, and future directions.

Treatment of progressive multifocal Leukoencephalopathy associated with idiopathic lymphocytopenia with Nivolumab. Brainhack: Developing a culture of open, inclusive, community-driven neuroscience. PolyQ-expanded ataxin-3 protein levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells correlate with clinical parameters in SCA3: a pilot study. Chemotherapy for adult patients with spinal cord gliomas. Protein signature of human skin fibroblasts allows the study of the molecular etiology of rare neurological diseases.

How do treatment times impact on functional outcome in stroke patients undergoing thrombectomy in Germany? Results from the German Stroke Registry. A reporter cell system for the triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 reveals differential effects of disease-associated variants on receptor signaling and activation by antibodies against the stalk region.

A microRNA signature that correlates with cognition and is a target against cognitive decline. Update cerebellum and cognition. Missense mutations in small muscle protein X-linked SMPX cause distal myopathy with protein inclusions. Slc1aA-CreERT2 mice reveal unique features of Bergmann glia and augment a growing collection of Cre drivers and effectors in the S4 genetic background.

Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy 4th edition 1. Mitochondrial Disorders. Brain activity is contingent on neuropsychological function in a functional magnetic resonance imaging study of verbal working memory in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Lakatos A, Petzold G. Prognostic factors in leptomeningeal metastases. Insulin resistance accounts for metabolic syndrome-related alterations in brain structure.

Correction to: Cerebellar transcranial direct current stimulation in spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 SCA3-tDCS : rationale and protocol of a randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled study. Bupropion for the treatment of apathy in Alzheimer disease: a randomized clinical trial vol 3, e, ; 4; The value of bone marrow biopsy for staging of patients with primary CNS lymphoma.

Mitochondrial disease in adults: recent advances and future promise. Astrocyte-specific expression of interleukin 23 leads to an aggravated phenotype and enhanced inflammatory response with B cell accumulation in the EAE model. Cognitive profiles of patients with mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer's versus Parkinson's disease defined using a base rate approach: Implications for neuropsychological assessments. Abnormal subpopulations of monocytes in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with Parkinson's disease.

Research priorities for rare neurological diseases: a representative view of patient representatives and healthcare professionals from the European Reference Network for Rare Neurological Diseases.

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