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Ashmore, D. Mills ed. EC European Commission. New Skills for New Jobs: anticipating and matching labour market and skills needs. Engovatova, A. Archaeology and the Global Economic Cri- sis: multiple impacts, possible solutions: Eogan, J. EU European Union. Treaty on European Union. Heritage Council. Ikawa-Smith, F. Practice of archaeology in contemporary Japan, in L. Lozny ed. Comparative archaeologies: a sociological view of the science of the past: Jameson, J.

Public archaeology in the United States, In N. Merriman ed. Public archaeology: London; New york: Routledge. Kindleberger, C. Manias, panics and crashes: a history of inancial crises 6th edition. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. Kradin, N. A panorama of social archaeology in Russia, in L.

Lanchester, J. Har- mondsworth: Penguin. Lipe, W. Lozny, L. Archaeology in the age of globalization: local meanings, global in- terest, in L. McDermott, C. La Piscopia. Discovering the archaeologists of Europe: Ireland.

Institute of Archaeologists of Ireland. Mcgimsey, C. Public Archaeology. New york: Seminar Press. Merrony, M. Minerva 20 1. Okamura, K. From object-centered to people-focused: exploring a gap be- tween archaeologists and the public in contemporary Japan, in K. Matsuda ed. New perspectives in global public archaeology: Archaeological heritage management in Japan, in P. Cultural heritage management: a global per- spective: Patterson, T.

An- nual Review of Anthropology Schlanger, N. Postscript: on dead canaries, guinea-pigs and Trojan horses, in N. Archaeology and the global economic crisis: multiple impacts, possible solutions: Tervuren: Culture Lab Editions. Discovering the Archaeologists of Europe Archaeology in London… both ends burning? Research question is how to manage and governance place- based sustainable development of rural community in the territory of the na- ture park based on safeguarding and use of neglected tangible and intangible cultural and nature heritage.

Finally, the third phenomenon is viewed as a public sector institutional organized oblivion of the rural cultural tradition, embodied in the tangible and intangible village cultural heritage, which is still awaiting an op- portunity to inluence the formation of collective and individual identities. Culture and Sustainable Development at Times of Crisis 75 there also lived the germans and Hungarians. However, this possibility was not utilized, even though by ac- quiring of an international protected status, tourist activity would be signii- cantly altered.

From the standpoint of legislation in the ield of nature conservation in Serbia, in the Proposal, it was recognized as a protected area with local sig- niicance, which until recently did not have an international dimension. Due to the way of life in these places and high level of pollution of its environment, population has a need to enjoy preserved natural setting, which provides quality and authenticity of experience, yet due to the lack of promotion and attractive tourist ofer, most people are not aware that such need can be fulilled in their immediate surroundings.

Bearing in mind that indigenous cultures prevailing in natural areas are the basic characteristic of ecotourism, international ilm festival on village life Zisel, held in Omoljica since , contributes to the international activity of this protected area. By means of cinematic art, it bears witness to the unique cultural relationship between inhabitants of Omoljica and nature, demons- trating the synergy of nature and culture, that is natural and anthropogenic factors, using arts as its means.

On the other hand, it points out to the interna- tional perception of Omoljica from the standpoint of ilmmakers worldwide, who participate in the competition of this festival with their ilms. However, local community still does not recognize this event as a development potential for ecotourism. Even though in its irst years, as the only ilm village in the entire former yugoslavia, the festival attracted thousands of visitors and tourists, in the last few years it has been interesting only to ilmmakers, whose ilms take part in the competitions, as well as to the small groups of local population.

Such events represent a true basis for community-based ecotourism, initiated and developed by the local community. Pump station on the regional hydro system Nadela in Ivanovo, built in , is among them and it has not been included in the conservation regime yet, even though due to its value, it was recommended for a conservation status, as an industrial-technical herita- ge4.

Two machine mills, typical for Vojvodina and wider region, have been pre- served, which were built during industrialization of the village between Written history of the 18th and 19th century testiies of the fertility of the soil, when Omoljica was an important geostrategic point on the border of Austro-Hungarian Empire. Numerous accounts regarding this custom and beliefs were not recorded6, which is why younger generations of Omoljica inhabitants and visitors to this village are not familiar with it, even though the spring still exist.

Not far from it, one of the oldest Orthodox Chris- tian temples in Vojvodina was built in , in which liturgies are held; it par- ticipates actively in the religious life of the Orthodox population of Omoljica. In this church, various Patron Saint days of the village inhabitants are marked, which being a unique custom, are included in the List of intangible cultural heritage of Serbia, closely associated with the social and economic develop- ment of local communities.

In the domain of intangible heritage, hospitability and cinema tradition lasting over a century are signiicant for the development of ecotourism in village Omoljica. First marks the th anni- versary of the moment when electrical current aggregators were acquired, and the other marks years since the irst cinema in this part of Banat region started operating. Sc, Director of the Museum of Science and Technology; interviews were conducted as a part of the research for this paper on April 19 and May Sc, conducted as a part of the research for this paper, May 24, However, none of these physical artifacts and intangible heritage is neither protected by law, nor the means of its usage is prescribed, which de- monstrates the lack of awareness about the signiicance of cultural heritage for the development of village Omoljica and other village communities on protec- ted areas in Serbia.

Citizens of Omoljica always loved horses, which is why there is a race track in the village, where races are occasionally held. Its long-term integrated management project is aimed at creating a consistent and cohe- rent concept of viable community based ecotourism in Omoljica. It consists of three diferent, yet connected groups of activities ensuring quality and authen- ticity of ecotourism: research of natural and cultural potentials for education of visitors, local population, policy makers, scientiic and expert community , interpretation of heritage, functioning as a preparation of destination for vi- sitors and promotion, aimed to attract visitors.

Based on the results, project has been continued with an interpretation of the forgotten intangible heritage by means of popular narratives, published on the website of the Association, in the form of a short story9. Beside being suitable for guided tours, its purpose is to motivate local population to participate in the development of ecotourism on the area of their village.

By their education and subsequent in- clusion in the development of ecotourism, a conlict can be prevented, which can occur when locals do not feel the beneits of such development. As a part of promotion, the Association set up an interactive web presen- tation containing diverse and rich content, intended for the local population and visitors. Website has been active since June 28, and it got visits in 10 months.

Quebec declaration on the preservation of the spirit of the place. Canada, In the following period, as a part of preparation of the destination for visitors, the Association is planning the restoration of the vineyard cottage, which is years old, that would increase lodging capacities for visitors.

Even though the Associa- tion applied on three public competition for funding in culture and tourism in , none of the projects received state support — on both republic and province level Certain number of bottom-up initiatives of civil and private sector evaluation of the community attractions, visitor services, organizational capabilities, ability to protect resources, as well as marketing can be noted.

Culture and Sustainable Development at Times of Crisis 81 managing Nature Park Ponjavica, lacks planning that would deine priorities and measurable aims, based on which destination management, product deve- lopment and marketing to bring about positive economic, social, cultural and environmental impacts, could be developed.

On the one hand, there are state and provin- cial activities relected on legislative regulation and occasional funding. On the other hand, there are eforts of individual initiatives in the local community with a number of activities inanced by their personal means. On the other hand, village schools and libraries have a particularly signiicant role in this area and so far they have not showed awa- reness of the value of rural cultural heritage, or its role in its protection, pre- servation, conveyance and usage.

Also, these results indicate that the process of change is practically feasible by balanced action Matarasso, Landry, ; Djukic, on internal and external development potentials. Since, internal potentials have been neglected and forgotten in the past few decades, it is necessary to revive its tangible and intagible natural and cultural heritage and re-discover the spirit of the place.

It needs intercultural dialogue between town and villages representatives and active participation of all stakeholders in public, private and civil sectors in the process of decission making. In order to develop a destination in line with this concept it needs to include all the eforts of individuals and organizations on the site, so to supplement the stra- tegic plan with the bottom-up activities, without which there cannot be a de- velopment of a successful community-based ecotourism destination.

Uniied actions of the state and local governments, as well as individuals and groups at the local level, should be interwoven throughout all stages of the development of destinations and products — from resources mapping, through products creating, promotion, sales and use of revenues. It is of particular importance that revenues stay in the community and that the authenticity of the environ- ment and the local traditional values are not violated.

Also, very signiicant matter in setting the model is a creation of measurable instruments that may in addition to the number and satisfaction of visitors and tourism revenues also measure community satisfaction regarding the tourism development. On the other hand, it is very important not to allow uncontrolled development of tourism, as well as to leave the opportunity for the changes, if it turns out to be the wish of a local community.

But, the basic condition for implementation of systemic structural changes in the management and governance that may encourage the development of these forms of tourism is the changed atitude of public policies — educational, cultural, tourism and others, towards endogenous resources of the village and reairmation of the tangible and intangible characteristics that give a speciic meaning to the place and makes it an interesting place for the local population, as well as for visitors and tourists.

Refererences Convention for the safeguarding of the intangible cultural heritage. A new model to assist in planning for sustainable cultural heritage tourism. International Journal of Tourism Research, 3, — Rural Tourism and development in Vojvodina: he animation of Tourism-Cultural Relationships, World future, special issue Cul- ture and development: European Experiences and Challenges, volume 33, num- bers , edited by Ervin Laszlo, New york: gordon and Breach sciense Publish- ers, p.

Djukic, Vesna State and culture: studies of contemporary cultural policy, Beograd: Faculty of Dramatic arts. Upravljanje duhom mesta: studija Parka prirode Ponjavica. Leach, Melissa A. Matarasso, Francois, Landry Charles Balancing act: twenty-one strategic dilem- mas in cultural policy.

Strasbourg Cedex: Council of Europe Publishing. Quebec declaration on the preservation of the spirit of the place Lon- don: Sage Publications, Chapter Sach, Wolfgang In: Zaks, Vofgang Most of current eforts, or dialogues of values about cultural sustainability and heritage, even though diverse to cer- tain extent, could be pinned down and structured within two main streams of thoughts, which I argue create a paradoxical relationship between heritage and cultural sustainability.

Each of these two groups of ideas understands heritage and its values in diferent terms, foresees diferent end goals of sustainability, and ends up with diferent viewpoints towards why and what safeguarding of heritage for sus- tainable society would be. One group is claiming that cultural sustainability comes by ensuring sustainability of cultural capital — by reproduction of cul- tural practices and preservation of heritage as non-renewable resource.

I argue that the ultimate, para- doxical dilemma coming from these contradictory views of the relationship of cultural sustainability and heritage is — whether we should sustain or evolve values in order to be sustainable? Heritage as non-renewable cultural capital of intrinsic value — cultural sustainability as heritage safeguarding he irst framework we will be looking at falls into a broad deinition of the authorized heritage discourse Smith, , It is the framework which primarily understands heritage values as intrinsic, as a given, and treats sustainability as the value chain endurance over time, from one generation to another.

It promotes the idea that heritage is the expression of national and community inheritance and identity via intrinsic values; it implies singular past that has to be protected as it once was, and that is visible through monu- ments, material remains, practices, beliefs; its valorization is a consequence of universal aesthetics, taste and values determined by the experts, not the laic judgment; and laics as audiences and tourists are passively introduces and in- structed to understand it.

Within this view, heritage is understood not only as intrinsic value but as a ixed, passive one, temporally and spatially embedded. Understood in these terms it acts as the transmitter of the chain of values that should not be questioned, since they are, almost genetically given from one generation to another, and can be sustained only if preserved so that future generations can enjoy them.

As such heritage is a special sort of cultural capi- tal that is non-renewable, and would vanish if not protected ICOMOS, ; Cameron, Authorized heritage discourse has been a dominant understanding of her- itage from its birth in 18th century France Chastel, until the critical heritage studies. It is a powerful conceptual framework which aims to hide the ideological basis of heritage creation and management, and which legiti- mizes and delegitimizes certain cultures and nations Smith, 4.

Not surprisingly, discourse of preservation of value chain via heritage pro- tection, has been playing one of the central roles in linking heritage with cul- tural sustainability. Cultural sustainability, understood as the efort to sustain cultural capital — values, ideas, beliefs, traditions - by maintaining, supporting and enduring them, creates strong links with the idea of inheritance of all types of cultural capital as intergenerational equity.

Cultural sustainability is therefore linked to the continuance of heritage as value chain. One can notice that the tool- kit providing support for maintaining certain endangered traditions, values and practices ofers capitalist led solutions of framing heritage within global consumerism, creative industries and tourism Dorsey, Steeves, and Porras, ; Askegaard and Kjeldgaard, ; Jamal and Stronza, ; Farsini, ; UN ; Birkeland and Soini, Exactly the authorized heritage discourse has successfully linked itself with sustainability, not only in terms of identity and intrinsic value protection but within the neoliberal capitalist paradigm of development and global market space UN And if not, what can be the alternative roles of heritage in sustainability?

Heritage as a social practice and diachronic process — cultural sustainability as cultural evolution towards more sustainable way of life If the authorized heritage discourse envisions heritage protection as an end for sustainability, the diachronic discourse tries to deine alternative role served by heritage in formation of values, above all for envisioning, planning for and enabling sustainability.

In trying to create a theory of value in which what is valued are not things but everyday actions, graeber suggests that the understanding of things and people through their dynamic potential is the only solution which is allowing for change, transformation and lexibility. He understands society as an ac- tive project and values as processes — the ways in which people who could do anything including the creation of new types of social relations give impor- tance to their actions, while they are doing them graeber, , Value, he claims, is the power of creating social relations, based on imagin- ing and recognizing values which exist as transformative potential and human capacity graeber, , Opposite to seeing heritage as embedding intrinsic values, the second group of ideas understands values of heritage as instrumental and relative, as they are always culturally, socially and historically conditioned.

Some information will have priority over others — we will decide to remember them in order to support, enforce or produce certain values. In her study about Uses of heritage, Smith tries to move from authorized heritage discourse and deines heritage as cultural process, as a communicative practice in which past gives resources for conlicts and dispute over what should be valued, why and in which ways.

She understands heritage as relational idea, as a way in which individuals and groups actively take positions in relation to objects, places, buildings, events. In communi- cation with heritage people produce values, de construct and re construct their identities and social structures. People relations with heritage do not end in diverse opinions and values, but in the ways in which people are involved in series of activities that include remembrance, forgetting, communication and appropriation of values.

Heritage as process, therefore, connects three interdependent categories — re production as the process of creation or preservation of desired image of the world; values as process of relection, recognition and formulation of desires and choices, and as intended results of creation; and identities or new social structures as forms of shaping and representing values Popadic, Heritage is not a static but interactive, hetero- geneous endeavor which means that learning from the pasts regimes of values Kopitof, around the globe can have transformative power on existing development approaches.

Heritage as a document of diverse value regimes of diferent societies, times and spaces can serve as a witness of diachronic struc- ture and transformations, and as such as a base for critical realism Bhaskar, towards the present and future. Heritage as communication medium Sola, ofers diverse ways for action which contribute to shaping, abandoning, transmitting and gener- ating values. However, from the point of view of its main advocates, within eco-cultural civilization storyline Birkeland and Soini, , this diachronic discourse does create space for social transformation as cultural change in achieving the overall aims of sustainability.

From paradoxes to dialoguing values Even though the two discussed groups of ideas seem to be radically dif- ferent and in many ways contradictory, more and more are they being used interchangeably. Part of the reason for this comes from the fact that most in- ternational and national cultural policy documents and systems for heritage protection have historically been built up around the irst group of ideas and are impossible to be restructured over a day.

Furthermore, the second group of ideas, apart from questioning the current heritage system, does not give the secure ground base and clear recipe for an alternative approach to heritage safeguarding, which makes it less appealing to policy makers. Even when it does create alternative approaches, they act as sparks of initiatives, projects, and forward thinking conventions within the old fashioned systems of heri- tage protection.

Despite of slow pace paradigm shit, the second group of ideas is getting more and more advocates in the academia and practice and therefore becom- ing hard to ignore. As Birkeland and Soini show, under the umbrella of cultural sustainability there is a range of represen- tations of political ideologies, from conservatism to liberalism to commu- nitarianism and environmentalism that express solutions to various social interests and show institutional ambiguity that characterizes the debates on both culture and sustainability and environmental problems related to sus- tainable development.

Apart from noticing that cultural sustainability is at an early stage in its conceptual evolution Birkeland and Soini, one has to recognize that both heritage and sustainability are concepts of family resemblance or polytypic concepts, Wittgenstein, ; Popadic, Accord- ing to Wittgenstein , polytypic concept encompasses all its diversi- ties and is related to group of objects, not because they have common char- acteristic, but because they have diferent similarities which partially overlap.

It is in relation to this that the new governance structures have to enable and support dialogues of values, allowing social actors to have an informed, critical worldview, to discuss and participate in decisions over a collective memory and collective future.

Advocating for Culture as a Pillar of Sustainability. Macromarket — Beddoe, R. Bhaskar, R. Critical Realism Essential Readings. London: Routledge. Natural Research Resources. Nonrenewable Resources. Spring , Volume 3 1 : Chastel, A. Council of Europe In from the Margins.

Council of Europe Publishing Dorsey, El. New Media Society 6, — Dunning, B. Skeptoid Media, Inc. Creative City network of Canada. Centre of Expertise on Culture and Communities. Paper 1. Eccleston, H. Available on last visited Heritage Council: Available on Last accessed Addison Wesley, Boston.

Torabi, Coelho, C. Tourism Res. Journal of Cleaner Production 15 6 : — Hawkes, J. Jamal, T. Cul- tural relationships in local—global spaces. Kopytof, I. Appadurai ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press: 64— Milne, M. Organization 13 6 : Milbrath, L. Environ- mentalist Meadowcrot, J. European Journal of Political Research. Volume 31 4 : — Marshall J.

Unpublished paper. In: W. Adger, and Jordan, A. Popadic, M. Ratner, B. Sociological Inquiry 74 1 : Sayer, A. Method in social science; A realist approach; revised second edition. Oxon: Routledge. Sen, A. In: V. Short, g. Envi- ronmental Cultural, Economic and Social Sustainability 1 4 : 1—8. In: R. Towse Ed. A handbook of Cultural Eco- nomics. Cultural Pol- icy 4, International Journal of heritage Studies Volume 12, Issue 4.

Wittgenstein, L. Hermopolis became a world capital of learn- ing in greco-Roman Egypt and enjoyed close links with the ancient library of Alexandria. It was inspirational to the Alexandrian Neo-Platonist circle of philosophers and had its impact on advancing the spiritual side of almost all religions. It shows the enduring legacy of this city and the tendency of its thought to emerge at times when humanity is faced with diiculties and uncertainties, making a persuasive argument for the need to revive its spirit to serve our turbulent times.

New Hermopolis is a cultural village established within walking distance from the ancient one at Tuna El gebel, Mallawi- El Minia. In spite of its wealth in cultural heritage, the area is culturally and economically disadvantaged and sufers from a long standing religious and ictional strife.

Culture and Sustainable Development at Times of Crisis 95 Culture, Heritage and Sustainability Culture is one of the most elusive terms in the history of modern thought. In anthropology it refers to social heritage and encompasses ideas, beliefs, aes- thetic perceptions and values Nasser All peoples believe in their own distinctive culture and vehemently defend the need to preserve and promote it.

Tangible heritage is regarded as a monument, a group of buildings or site of historical, aesthetic, archaeological, scientiic, ethnological or anthropologi- cal value. Natural heritage, on the other hand, refers to outstanding physical, biological and geographical features including habitats of threatened plants or animal species and are of value on scientiic or aesthetic grounds.

Both tangi- ble and natural heritage are considered easy to deine, but the case with intan- gible heritage is rather diferent. It commonly refers to all forms of traditional and popular folk culture that are transmitted and recreated overtime through a process of collective recreation within speciic geo-cultural spheres Nasser Cultural memory, on the other hand, which the author espouses to was irst coined by Jan Assmann a to describe the societal dimension of hu- man memory where by cultural continuity is preserved and passed on from one generation to the next.

More importantly, however, is how this cultural memory helps human communities to arrive to meaningful statements about their past that can be of service to their present. Regardless of all these deinitions, cultural policy makers have for years restricted their discussion to only the narrow and limited deinition of culture as relected in forms of artistic expression created by people who practice art in an amateur or professional capacity.

Integral, however, to the issue of policy making is the debate about devel- opment and sustainability. A relection on the theme of culture and sustainable development began to emerge starting in the s. Hermopolis — the archeological and historical city Ancient Hermopolis was the capital city of the 15th Nome of Upper Egypt. She is thought to have frequented the academy of Hermopolis and may have built a harbour there.

In fact the city of Hermopolis had in ancient times close links with Alexandria and its famous library and there was a constant low of ideas between these two major capitals of thought Abadi , Nasser In Tuna El-gebel western Hermopolis , the main highlight is Petosiris, the scribe of hoth at the time of Alexander the great. It has the ap- pearance of a small temple and the reliefs on its walls attest to the multiple inluences witnessed by this city, Egyptian, Persian and greek.

Also, the poetic inscriptions of Petosiris in this tomb reveal his concern with what was later referred to in the hermetica as the perfect discourse. It describes a true way of life that sees knowledge as the source of salvation for mankind. It consists of a number of treatises and dialogues written in greek, Latin and Coptic languages, representing the intellectual and relective tradition of both Egypt and greece.

It is a multifaceted body of thought that echoes much of the wisdom of ancient Egypt, but also that of greek philoso- phical works Foweden Hermetic philosophy emerged as well in parallel with Neoplatonism and gnosticism and was instrumental in developing spiritual forms of theology including Judaic Kabala, gnostic Christianity and Islamic Suism. As in Alexandria thou- sand year earlier, the Renaissance viewed science, art, literature and religion as part of a united whole to be studied together and all aspects of human life were open for investigation Cronin , Ebling It was based more on Medieval Arab scholars understand- ing of the Hermetic texts particularly the connection between wisdom and healing Okasha However, the true inluence of Hermetism on the ger- man mind did not reach its peak until the age of german Romanticism Hor- nung , Ebling As for England, historians argue that the Elizabethan court was greatly in- spired by Hermetic humanism, particularly its emphasis on the idea of religious freedom French Emerson, the prophet of American idealism, as he is commonly referred to, realised that the seeds of future thought were to be found in ancient wisdom.

Also, the American philosopher William James regarded diversity to be the default state of human experience, and taught that in order to reach peace and satisfaction humans need to live in harmony with their dif- ferent mosaic parts James New Hermopolis New Hermopolis was born out of the need to revive and reclaim such ancient city with its unique humanistic heritage that celebrates diversity and embraces diferences.

In so doing, the spirit of this place genius loci will be preserved Petzet Revival of the spirit of this place with its relevance to humanity at large is certainly a major aim of this project, but the main aim of it is to capitalise on this philosophy to ofer a model of sustainable development to the region itself. New Hermopolis serves the main city of Mallawi and its surrounding vil- lages approx.

For decades, this region has experienced neglect and mar- ginalization. Middle Egypt exhibits some of the highest levels of poverty and marginaliza- tion in the country. Economic opportunities are scarce, but opportunities for free self-expression are even scarcer. Partisanship and intolerance of alternate belief systems has risen, particularly along the Christian-Muslim juxtaposi- tion, higher in this region than many other areas of Egypt.

Description New Hermopolis is a retreat built on ecological principles in the middle of sprawling, breathtaking desert and mountain landscape. It is located in Tuna el gebel village within 20 KM from the main city of Mallawi, approximately kilometres from Cairo. It consists of a place for visitors and a cultural space designed to hold academic and artistic activities for the beneit of the local community and in- ternational visitors. With 16 guest lodges that have the capacity for 52 visitors, it is an open environment for local cultural groups, cultural tourists, artists, writers and other retreat groups.

It carries the ethos of engaging with the local heritage and art, both tangible and intan- gible to generate new ideas and experiences. Operational Model New Hermopolis employs a hybrid social-business model that raises rev- enue from business activities to invest in social change programs within our local communities. Using the principles of solidarity and sustainable tourism, our aim is to reach out to niche customer bases interested in heritage tourism packages and community investment and development.

We encourage our visitors, when possible, to deep- en their engagement with our local communities. Visiting musicians and artists will be encouraged to exchange work, concepts, and ideas with local youth. Products such as locally-designed, fair trade handicrats and specialty food products from our gardens are also on ofer. And agro-tourists will have opportunities for hands- on training in desert farming techniques.

Our goal is to ensure that visitors leave with better appreciations for local communities, and feel like participants rather than observers of village life. Although the aim is to generate income through the hospitality business, the overall aim of the project is to deliver programming beneiting local com- munities.

To see this through, the revenue from the centre will be combined with grant support to a increase economic opportunities by building skills in hospitality, art, and agriculture, and b develop soter skills through art and heritage education that build stronger local cultures and foster tolerant, un- derstanding societies.

With a focus on children and youth, we aim to foster practice of self-expression, critical thought, and creativity. We have also adopted an unusual outreach programme en- couraging the creation of a number of cultural bodies in nearby villages where New Hermopolis acts a collective focus, a hub and incubator to give guidance, support and insure their continued growth. Various avenues are available for youth to demonstrate and showcase their work to local communities. Competitions featur- ing poetry, essays, design, and music are also planned to be held periodically, teaching youth that art production can yield reward and help us in identifying truly talented local artists.

By ofering these public outlets for voicing of opin- ions, we hope to encourage discussion of belief, tolerance, and respect. Conclusion he paper presented the model of New Hermopolis as a sustainable model of development inspired by cultural heritage. We certainly live in an age not very diferent from the post-Alexandrine one. We are living through the second wave of historical globalisation where the world has become a strange mixture of languages, ideologies and cultural forms.

Time and again, expression through the arts has been demonstrated as an efective tool for buil- ding open-minded and respectful societies. Art can bring to light issues dif- icult to address head-on, promoting creative thought, constructive dialogue and social cohesion.

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Ny: Penguin group. Fidler, D. Bingheman: University of New york, Oct. Foweden, g. A historical approach to the late pagan mind. Cambridge University Press. Freke, T. French, P. London: Rouledge. Hansen, M. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

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U Nacionalnoj strategiji privrednog razvoja Republike Srbije Srbiji - Nacionalna strategija regionalnog razvoja Republike Srbije za period Nacionalna strategija razvoja obrazovanja u Srbiji do Poslednjih nekoliko godina, u Srbiji je prisutan i fenomen razvoja i ulaga- nja privatne inicijative u savremenu umetnost. Iako npr. Dunavski festival u Ulmu.

Postoje naravno i drugi primeri gde su festivali, npr. Reka Dunav i Dunavska strategija. Studije savremene kulturne politike. Fakultet dramskih umetnosti Matarasso, Francois. Use or Ornament: he social impact of participation in the arts.

Dunav, reka jedinstva Evrope. Palmer, Robert. Uzbudljivi gradovi. Economics and culture. Cambridge University Press hrosby, David. On the Sustainability of Cultural Capital. Nacionalna strategija privrednog razvoja Strategija razvoja turizma u Republici Srbiji za period Nacionalna strategija regionalnog razvoja Republike Srbi- je. Nacionalna startegija obrazovanja u Srbiji do To je pretnja svim tipovima i modelima medija i medijskih sistema, s obzirom da 6 Teorija dnevnog reda - Agenda setting.

Devedesetih godina Zdrava 19 Politika Online, 2. Literatura Enviromental Management handbook. Kates, Robert W. Parris, and Anthony A. Politika, dnevne novine, 2. Politika Online, 2. Zakon o radiodifuziji Another issue that this paper sheds light on is closely related to the sustainable development of media itself and is more current from the posi- tion of media theory and practice.

In modern terms, in the world and in our country, the position of media is inluenced by numerous external factors that oten impair their stability and survival. Preferably it is related to the economic factors, liberalization of the media market, the multipilication of the number and types of the media, legislation, socio-demographic changes, challenges that new technologies bring, changes related to the audience.

Another type of threat that endangers the sustainable media development, comes out of the media itself. It is a con- lict between the quantity and quality of media content, the activity of trends such as tab- loidisation and self-censorship, predominance of bad taste, shady and non-transparent ownership, poor position of media workers, and also lack of their education and all in all generally low capacity to act in accordance with the imperative of a democratic society, one of which is a care for sustainable development.

Slika 1. Culture and Sustainable Development at Times of Crisis noj kulturi i medijima. Za razliku od Pirove, Tod Braun Tod Brown za osnovu svoje klasiikacije uzima tehnologiju koja se koristi u prikazivanju ilmova i deli savremene ekrane na kojima se ilmovi mogu prikazivati na: analogne bioskop , elektronske tele- vizor i digitalne ekrane kompjuter i mobilni telefon 4.

Mobilni ilmovi mobile ilms, portable ilms , mi- Slika 2. Simons navodi da se na mobilnom telefonu mogu gledati ilmovi pravlje- ni na i za mobilni telefon6, ali i ilmovi namenjeni bioskopskom prikazivanju7. Zbog navedenih uslovnosti, za sada su se kratke forme reklame, kratki ilmovi, video spotovi, itd. Sineilija 2. Stalno napredovanje radnje i audio-vizuelno bogatstvo ilma navode gledaoca da zaboravi na prisustvo okvira. Troscianko, T. Meese, S. Hinde objavljen Christie ed.

Audiences, Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press. Audi- ences, Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press. Audiences, Amsterdam: Amsterdam Univer- sity Press. Elsaes- ser and K. Hofmann eds. Cinema Futures: Cain, Abel or Cable? Pierce, Julliana. Of he Air: Screenrights Newsletter. Vanairsdale S. During the last three decades, the size of the screens is gradually being reduced to the size of a tablet and a mobile telephone , but also increased open-air cinemas.

Also, due to the changes of size and mobility of screens, recipients more oten engage in several activities simultaneoulsy watching a ilm and sending text messages, or tweeting across several screens multi-tasking spectator which results in complex modes of perception and reception of a ilm efect of the second screen.

Also important is the change of the regime in which we watch ilms, because ilms we watch on the Internet online, download ; on cable Tv channels prepaid, or pre-ordered ; or on DvD bought or rented can be stopped, paused, rewound or fast- forwarded, or we can change a channel. From the above-mentioned, one can conclude that the contemporary complexity of ilm perception and reception is afected by the size of the screen from the miniature to colossal , screen mobility from static to moveable ones and screen multiplication.

Masov- na publika, bar onakva kakva je postojala u vreme tradicionalnih medija, pola- ko prelazi u istoriju medijske teorije, a nastupa vreme pojedinca. Plasiran kroz crowdfunding websajt Catarse, O Sujeito misija je opisivana3: Print mediji su u krizi. Novinarstvo nije. Autor projekta je student poslediplomskih studija. Maja Culture and Sustainable Development at Times of Crisis stanu. Downing, John D. Cambridge: Po- lity Press, London, Polity Press, Cambridge, Wijayananda Jayaweera, what is Community Radio in the 21st Century?

A osim toga usmerene su na sasvim drugu ciljnu grupu — omladinu. Popularna muzika je neosporno produkt Osim toga, popularnu muziku prati i publika kao posebna kategorija kojima je muzika namenjena, ali isto tako i festivali i ekonomski efekti koju ta muzika proizvodi.

Londonska grupa he Good, he Bad and he queen su novembra Political Science Kada danas spomenemo nuklearnu energiju ili nuklearne elektrane ret- ko ko za prvu asocijaciju ima jetinu struju ili smanjivanje globalnog zagre- vanja. Ecocriticism and American Popular Music Since Iste U pesmi Meso je ubistvo Meat is murder iz U februaru To je toliko jednostavno Bebe odraslog medveda koje prisustvuju pokolju sopstvenih majki su ostavljene da umru polako i same. Ali samo jedna budala koja bi je nosila.

Mnogo je sigurnije tvrditi — To je samo zabava momci Julian Temple, Odsvirao sam je Miku i pesma mu se svidela. Udarao je ritam prstima. Bukvalno smo poludeli. Bili smo malo ispred globalnog zagrevanja, zar ne? Dakle, strah nije bio bez razloga, a poplave su se ipak dogodile. I poznat nam je verovatni kraj ljud- ske gluposti prema odraslim ljudima. Morrissey Pedelty, Mark , Ecomusicology.

Salewicz, Chris, , Bob Marley. Shuker, Roy , Popular Music. Environmental movements replaced the street as its stage of activities with social networks. Art and culture are becoming eco- logically responsible. Culture becomes a tool and special type of modern pro-environmental activism. In this context, popular mu- sic has its own speciic role. In the paper, emphasis is given to the study of three eco-political phenomena and their representation in popular music: nuclear energy as energy phenomenon and a threat to peace , animal rights and climate changes.

Rana S. Ratna and Awais L. Consequently, what is meant by cultural heritage has inevitably changed over time as well. Once referring exclusively to the monumental remains of cultures, the concept of cultural heritage nowadays encompasses ethnographic and industrial, rural, urban and natural inheritance of a community, divided into several main categories such as cultural heritage tangible: paintings, sculptures, manuscripts, monuments, archaeological sites, underwater ruins, cities, and intangible: oral traditions, performing arts, rituals , natural heritage cultural landscapes, physical, biological or geological formations , as well as the heritage in the event of armed conlict UNESCO.

Focusing not only on the value of cultural heritage itself and how to protect it , but also on the beneits it might bring to a community why to protect it , the Convention considers heritage as part of everyday life, stressing the importance of culture in general as an inseparable component of sustainable development.

Soon ater the Brundtland Report was published, it became ap- parent that environmental balance, economic growth and social inclusion, as three dimensions of sustainable development, do not fully correspond to the complexity of contemporary society and trends that afect our lives on a daily basis. For that reason, an increasing number of researchers around the world have tried to incorporate the notion of culture into this paradigm, placing it as the fourth pillar of sustainable development of a society.

For that rea- son, it equally addresses case studies of natural, rural and urban inheritance, as subcategories of cultural heritage and examples of top-down collaboration and bottom-up approach towards achieving sustainability of both cultural heritage and local settings, neighbourhoods and communities.

Although touristic potentials of cultural heritage ability to attract tourists and positive efect that tourism is expected to have on income and employ- ment are usually emphasized as the most evident contributions of culture to the local sustainable development Papageorgiou 28 , the idea behind the case study gives a broader framework, not only for considering culture as a component of sustainable development, but also for discussing the sustainable use of cultural heritage itself.

Conceived as a cooperation between the public sector on one side as the founder of the Museum , and private and civil actors on the other, the EMIV project aimed to create a sustainable model for further balanced devel- opment of the area. Since the locals usually do not perceive heritage as part of their every- day, common life, the idea behind the Project was to invite them re discover it all over again.

As a result, being increasingly used by individuals on a daily basis, local cultural and natural heritage has slowly started to become the sup- porting pillar that brings social and economic beneits to the local community. Such approach is particularly important for the reason that the heritage might become an instrument of exclusion of the local community if not perceived as part of everyday landscape and commonality.

Only deeply embedded heritage exercised by the community can become a mechanism of inclusion and thus a precondition for genuine sustainability Fairclough et al. Considering this, we might say that the EMIV would have represented a non-obligatory agreement based on which the local community would have taken care not only of the territory itself, but of complex layers of cultural, social and environmental values which deine a unique local heritage Maggi 9.

However, despite all the positive impacts of the Project and due to other similar initiatives,7 the City of Kraljevo withdrew from the Project dur- ing the last phase of its implementation. Without this crucial support of local government, the EMIV was never established as a legal entity. Knowing that, in order to be successful, such initiatives need to be sup- ported not only by the community but also by local authorities gob, Druge 52; Papageorgiou 17 , we may conclude that not only that this cuisine and old mills still in use by local inhabitants.

Apart from positive economic change, Agritours have brought positive social impulse as many people returned to their villages so as to start their own businesses. Although the idea of the Eco museum brought together diverse local stakeholders, without the structure and general framework it is highly questionable how long the Project results will last. In trying to create a theory of value in which what is valued are not things but everyday actions, graeber suggests that the understanding of things and people through their dynamic potential is the only solution which is allowing for change, transformation and lexibility.

He understands society as an ac- tive project and values as processes — the ways in which people who could do anything including the creation of new types of social relations give impor- tance to their actions, while they are doing them graeber, , Value, he claims, is the power of creating social relations, based on imagin- ing and recognizing values which exist as transformative potential and human capacity graeber, , Opposite to seeing heritage as embedding intrinsic values, the second group of ideas understands values of heritage as instrumental and relative, as they are always culturally, socially and historically conditioned.

Some information will have priority over others — we will decide to remember them in order to support, enforce or produce certain values. In her study about Uses of heritage, Smith tries to move from authorized heritage discourse and deines heritage as cultural process, as a communicative practice in which past gives resources for conlicts and dispute over what should be valued, why and in which ways.

She understands heritage as relational idea, as a way in which individuals and groups actively take positions in relation to objects, places, buildings, events. In communi- cation with heritage people produce values, de construct and re construct their identities and social structures. People relations with heritage do not end in diverse opinions and values, but in the ways in which people are involved in series of activities that include remembrance, forgetting, communication and appropriation of values.

Heritage as process, therefore, connects three interdependent categories — re production as the process of creation or preservation of desired image of the world; values as process of relection, recognition and formulation of desires and choices, and as intended results of creation; and identities or new social structures as forms of shaping and representing values Popadic, Heritage is not a static but interactive, hetero- geneous endeavor which means that learning from the pasts regimes of values Kopitof, around the globe can have transformative power on existing development approaches.

Heritage as a document of diverse value regimes of diferent societies, times and spaces can serve as a witness of diachronic struc- ture and transformations, and as such as a base for critical realism Bhaskar, towards the present and future. Heritage as communication medium Sola, ofers diverse ways for action which contribute to shaping, abandoning, transmitting and gener- ating values. However, from the point of view of its main advocates, within eco-cultural civilization storyline Birkeland and Soini, , this diachronic discourse does create space for social transformation as cultural change in achieving the overall aims of sustainability.

From paradoxes to dialoguing values Even though the two discussed groups of ideas seem to be radically dif- ferent and in many ways contradictory, more and more are they being used interchangeably. Part of the reason for this comes from the fact that most in- ternational and national cultural policy documents and systems for heritage protection have historically been built up around the irst group of ideas and are impossible to be restructured over a day.

Furthermore, the second group of ideas, apart from questioning the current heritage system, does not give the secure ground base and clear recipe for an alternative approach to heritage safeguarding, which makes it less appealing to policy makers. Even when it does create alternative approaches, they act as sparks of initiatives, projects, and forward thinking conventions within the old fashioned systems of heri- tage protection.

Despite of slow pace paradigm shit, the second group of ideas is getting more and more advocates in the academia and practice and therefore becom- ing hard to ignore. As Birkeland and Soini show, under the umbrella of cultural sustainability there is a range of represen- tations of political ideologies, from conservatism to liberalism to commu- nitarianism and environmentalism that express solutions to various social interests and show institutional ambiguity that characterizes the debates on both culture and sustainability and environmental problems related to sus- tainable development.

Apart from noticing that cultural sustainability is at an early stage in its conceptual evolution Birkeland and Soini, one has to recognize that both heritage and sustainability are concepts of family resemblance or polytypic concepts, Wittgenstein, ; Popadic, Accord- ing to Wittgenstein , polytypic concept encompasses all its diversi- ties and is related to group of objects, not because they have common char- acteristic, but because they have diferent similarities which partially overlap.

It is in relation to this that the new governance structures have to enable and support dialogues of values, allowing social actors to have an informed, critical worldview, to discuss and participate in decisions over a collective memory and collective future.

Advocating for Culture as a Pillar of Sustainability. Macromarket — Beddoe, R. Bhaskar, R. Critical Realism Essential Readings. London: Routledge. Natural Research Resources. Nonrenewable Resources. Spring , Volume 3 1 : Chastel, A. Council of Europe In from the Margins. Council of Europe Publishing Dorsey, El. New Media Society 6, — Dunning, B. Skeptoid Media, Inc. Creative City network of Canada. Centre of Expertise on Culture and Communities. Paper 1. Eccleston, H. Available on last visited Heritage Council: Available on Last accessed Addison Wesley, Boston.

Torabi, Coelho, C. Tourism Res. Journal of Cleaner Production 15 6 : — Hawkes, J. Jamal, T. Cul- tural relationships in local—global spaces. Kopytof, I. Appadurai ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press: 64— Milne, M. Organization 13 6 : Milbrath, L. Environ- mentalist Meadowcrot, J. European Journal of Political Research. Volume 31 4 : — Marshall J. Unpublished paper.

In: W. Adger, and Jordan, A. Popadic, M. Ratner, B. Sociological Inquiry 74 1 : Sayer, A. Method in social science; A realist approach; revised second edition. Oxon: Routledge. Sen, A. In: V. Short, g. Envi- ronmental Cultural, Economic and Social Sustainability 1 4 : 1—8. In: R. Towse Ed. A handbook of Cultural Eco- nomics. Cultural Pol- icy 4, International Journal of heritage Studies Volume 12, Issue 4.

Wittgenstein, L. Hermopolis became a world capital of learn- ing in greco-Roman Egypt and enjoyed close links with the ancient library of Alexandria. It was inspirational to the Alexandrian Neo-Platonist circle of philosophers and had its impact on advancing the spiritual side of almost all religions. It shows the enduring legacy of this city and the tendency of its thought to emerge at times when humanity is faced with diiculties and uncertainties, making a persuasive argument for the need to revive its spirit to serve our turbulent times.

New Hermopolis is a cultural village established within walking distance from the ancient one at Tuna El gebel, Mallawi- El Minia. In spite of its wealth in cultural heritage, the area is culturally and economically disadvantaged and sufers from a long standing religious and ictional strife. Culture and Sustainable Development at Times of Crisis 95 Culture, Heritage and Sustainability Culture is one of the most elusive terms in the history of modern thought.

In anthropology it refers to social heritage and encompasses ideas, beliefs, aes- thetic perceptions and values Nasser All peoples believe in their own distinctive culture and vehemently defend the need to preserve and promote it. Tangible heritage is regarded as a monument, a group of buildings or site of historical, aesthetic, archaeological, scientiic, ethnological or anthropologi- cal value. Natural heritage, on the other hand, refers to outstanding physical, biological and geographical features including habitats of threatened plants or animal species and are of value on scientiic or aesthetic grounds.

Both tangi- ble and natural heritage are considered easy to deine, but the case with intan- gible heritage is rather diferent. It commonly refers to all forms of traditional and popular folk culture that are transmitted and recreated overtime through a process of collective recreation within speciic geo-cultural spheres Nasser Cultural memory, on the other hand, which the author espouses to was irst coined by Jan Assmann a to describe the societal dimension of hu- man memory where by cultural continuity is preserved and passed on from one generation to the next.

More importantly, however, is how this cultural memory helps human communities to arrive to meaningful statements about their past that can be of service to their present. Regardless of all these deinitions, cultural policy makers have for years restricted their discussion to only the narrow and limited deinition of culture as relected in forms of artistic expression created by people who practice art in an amateur or professional capacity.

Integral, however, to the issue of policy making is the debate about devel- opment and sustainability. A relection on the theme of culture and sustainable development began to emerge starting in the s. Hermopolis — the archeological and historical city Ancient Hermopolis was the capital city of the 15th Nome of Upper Egypt.

She is thought to have frequented the academy of Hermopolis and may have built a harbour there. In fact the city of Hermopolis had in ancient times close links with Alexandria and its famous library and there was a constant low of ideas between these two major capitals of thought Abadi , Nasser In Tuna El-gebel western Hermopolis , the main highlight is Petosiris, the scribe of hoth at the time of Alexander the great.

It has the ap- pearance of a small temple and the reliefs on its walls attest to the multiple inluences witnessed by this city, Egyptian, Persian and greek. Also, the poetic inscriptions of Petosiris in this tomb reveal his concern with what was later referred to in the hermetica as the perfect discourse.

It describes a true way of life that sees knowledge as the source of salvation for mankind. It consists of a number of treatises and dialogues written in greek, Latin and Coptic languages, representing the intellectual and relective tradition of both Egypt and greece. It is a multifaceted body of thought that echoes much of the wisdom of ancient Egypt, but also that of greek philoso- phical works Foweden Hermetic philosophy emerged as well in parallel with Neoplatonism and gnosticism and was instrumental in developing spiritual forms of theology including Judaic Kabala, gnostic Christianity and Islamic Suism.

As in Alexandria thou- sand year earlier, the Renaissance viewed science, art, literature and religion as part of a united whole to be studied together and all aspects of human life were open for investigation Cronin , Ebling It was based more on Medieval Arab scholars understand- ing of the Hermetic texts particularly the connection between wisdom and healing Okasha However, the true inluence of Hermetism on the ger- man mind did not reach its peak until the age of german Romanticism Hor- nung , Ebling As for England, historians argue that the Elizabethan court was greatly in- spired by Hermetic humanism, particularly its emphasis on the idea of religious freedom French Emerson, the prophet of American idealism, as he is commonly referred to, realised that the seeds of future thought were to be found in ancient wisdom.

Also, the American philosopher William James regarded diversity to be the default state of human experience, and taught that in order to reach peace and satisfaction humans need to live in harmony with their dif- ferent mosaic parts James New Hermopolis New Hermopolis was born out of the need to revive and reclaim such ancient city with its unique humanistic heritage that celebrates diversity and embraces diferences. In so doing, the spirit of this place genius loci will be preserved Petzet Revival of the spirit of this place with its relevance to humanity at large is certainly a major aim of this project, but the main aim of it is to capitalise on this philosophy to ofer a model of sustainable development to the region itself.

New Hermopolis serves the main city of Mallawi and its surrounding vil- lages approx. For decades, this region has experienced neglect and mar- ginalization. Middle Egypt exhibits some of the highest levels of poverty and marginaliza- tion in the country. Economic opportunities are scarce, but opportunities for free self-expression are even scarcer.

Partisanship and intolerance of alternate belief systems has risen, particularly along the Christian-Muslim juxtaposi- tion, higher in this region than many other areas of Egypt. Description New Hermopolis is a retreat built on ecological principles in the middle of sprawling, breathtaking desert and mountain landscape. It is located in Tuna el gebel village within 20 KM from the main city of Mallawi, approximately kilometres from Cairo.

It consists of a place for visitors and a cultural space designed to hold academic and artistic activities for the beneit of the local community and in- ternational visitors. With 16 guest lodges that have the capacity for 52 visitors, it is an open environment for local cultural groups, cultural tourists, artists, writers and other retreat groups.

It carries the ethos of engaging with the local heritage and art, both tangible and intan- gible to generate new ideas and experiences. Operational Model New Hermopolis employs a hybrid social-business model that raises rev- enue from business activities to invest in social change programs within our local communities. Using the principles of solidarity and sustainable tourism, our aim is to reach out to niche customer bases interested in heritage tourism packages and community investment and development.

We encourage our visitors, when possible, to deep- en their engagement with our local communities. Visiting musicians and artists will be encouraged to exchange work, concepts, and ideas with local youth. Products such as locally-designed, fair trade handicrats and specialty food products from our gardens are also on ofer.

And agro-tourists will have opportunities for hands- on training in desert farming techniques. Our goal is to ensure that visitors leave with better appreciations for local communities, and feel like participants rather than observers of village life. Although the aim is to generate income through the hospitality business, the overall aim of the project is to deliver programming beneiting local com- munities. To see this through, the revenue from the centre will be combined with grant support to a increase economic opportunities by building skills in hospitality, art, and agriculture, and b develop soter skills through art and heritage education that build stronger local cultures and foster tolerant, un- derstanding societies.

With a focus on children and youth, we aim to foster practice of self-expression, critical thought, and creativity. We have also adopted an unusual outreach programme en- couraging the creation of a number of cultural bodies in nearby villages where New Hermopolis acts a collective focus, a hub and incubator to give guidance, support and insure their continued growth. Various avenues are available for youth to demonstrate and showcase their work to local communities.

Competitions featur- ing poetry, essays, design, and music are also planned to be held periodically, teaching youth that art production can yield reward and help us in identifying truly talented local artists. By ofering these public outlets for voicing of opin- ions, we hope to encourage discussion of belief, tolerance, and respect.

Conclusion he paper presented the model of New Hermopolis as a sustainable model of development inspired by cultural heritage. We certainly live in an age not very diferent from the post-Alexandrine one. We are living through the second wave of historical globalisation where the world has become a strange mixture of languages, ideologies and cultural forms.

Time and again, expression through the arts has been demonstrated as an efective tool for buil- ding open-minded and respectful societies. Art can bring to light issues dif- icult to address head-on, promoting creative thought, constructive dialogue and social cohesion.

Bibliography Abadi, M. Supreme Council of antiquities. Cairo: Egypt. Assman, J. Harvard University Press. In: J. Assmann and T. Bagnall, R. An Archaeologi- cal and historical Guide. Colbert, F. Cronin, V. London: Collins. Ebling, F. Translated from german by David Lorton Cornell University Press. El-Daly, O. Ancient Egypt in Medieval Arabic writing.

London: UCL Press. Emerson, R. Tarcher Cornerstone Edition. Ny: Penguin group. Fidler, D. Bingheman: University of New york, Oct. Foweden, g. A historical approach to the late pagan mind. Cambridge University Press. Freke, T. French, P. London: Rouledge. Hansen, M. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Friedman, J. Ameri- can Anthropologist 94 4 , pp. Hornung, E. Translated from german by David Lorton. James, W. Eliberton Classics. Jung, C. Kreis, S. Alexander the great and the Hellenistic World, BC.

Lichtheim, M. Vol III: the late period. Nasser, M. Conference proceedings December , Bibliotheca Alexan- drina. In: Capital Cities and heritage in the Globalization Era. Unpub- lished paper. In: Spirit of Place: between Tangible and Intangible heritage.

Edited by Laurier Turgeon. Shanks, M. Experiences of the discipline. Lon- don: Routledge. Evropska unija, svesna potencijala koji ovaj makro-region poseduje, po- krenula je Trajala je do Mostarska , Venecijanska , Zadarska Srbije, tako i u celom re- gionu Podunavlja. Srbiju i region Podunavlja Zakonom o kulturi stvoreni su zakonski preduslovi npr. U Nacionalnoj strategiji privrednog razvoja Republike Srbije Srbiji - Nacionalna strategija regionalnog razvoja Republike Srbije za period Nacionalna strategija razvoja obrazovanja u Srbiji do Poslednjih nekoliko godina, u Srbiji je prisutan i fenomen razvoja i ulaga- nja privatne inicijative u savremenu umetnost.

Iako npr. Dunavski festival u Ulmu. Postoje naravno i drugi primeri gde su festivali, npr. Reka Dunav i Dunavska strategija. Studije savremene kulturne politike. Fakultet dramskih umetnosti Matarasso, Francois. Use or Ornament: he social impact of participation in the arts. Dunav, reka jedinstva Evrope. Palmer, Robert. Uzbudljivi gradovi. Economics and culture. Cambridge University Press hrosby, David.

On the Sustainability of Cultural Capital. Nacionalna strategija privrednog razvoja Strategija razvoja turizma u Republici Srbiji za period Nacionalna strategija regionalnog razvoja Republike Srbi- je. Nacionalna startegija obrazovanja u Srbiji do To je pretnja svim tipovima i modelima medija i medijskih sistema, s obzirom da 6 Teorija dnevnog reda - Agenda setting.

Devedesetih godina Zdrava 19 Politika Online, 2. Literatura Enviromental Management handbook. Kates, Robert W. Parris, and Anthony A. Politika, dnevne novine, 2. Politika Online, 2. Zakon o radiodifuziji Another issue that this paper sheds light on is closely related to the sustainable development of media itself and is more current from the posi- tion of media theory and practice.

In modern terms, in the world and in our country, the position of media is inluenced by numerous external factors that oten impair their stability and survival. Preferably it is related to the economic factors, liberalization of the media market, the multipilication of the number and types of the media, legislation, socio-demographic changes, challenges that new technologies bring, changes related to the audience.

Another type of threat that endangers the sustainable media development, comes out of the media itself. It is a con- lict between the quantity and quality of media content, the activity of trends such as tab- loidisation and self-censorship, predominance of bad taste, shady and non-transparent ownership, poor position of media workers, and also lack of their education and all in all generally low capacity to act in accordance with the imperative of a democratic society, one of which is a care for sustainable development.

Slika 1. Culture and Sustainable Development at Times of Crisis noj kulturi i medijima. Za razliku od Pirove, Tod Braun Tod Brown za osnovu svoje klasiikacije uzima tehnologiju koja se koristi u prikazivanju ilmova i deli savremene ekrane na kojima se ilmovi mogu prikazivati na: analogne bioskop , elektronske tele- vizor i digitalne ekrane kompjuter i mobilni telefon 4.

Mobilni ilmovi mobile ilms, portable ilms , mi- Slika 2. Simons navodi da se na mobilnom telefonu mogu gledati ilmovi pravlje- ni na i za mobilni telefon6, ali i ilmovi namenjeni bioskopskom prikazivanju7. Zbog navedenih uslovnosti, za sada su se kratke forme reklame, kratki ilmovi, video spotovi, itd. Sineilija 2. Stalno napredovanje radnje i audio-vizuelno bogatstvo ilma navode gledaoca da zaboravi na prisustvo okvira. Troscianko, T. Meese, S. Hinde objavljen Christie ed. Audiences, Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.

Audi- ences, Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press. Audiences, Amsterdam: Amsterdam Univer- sity Press. Elsaes- ser and K. Hofmann eds. Cinema Futures: Cain, Abel or Cable? Pierce, Julliana. Of he Air: Screenrights Newsletter. Vanairsdale S. During the last three decades, the size of the screens is gradually being reduced to the size of a tablet and a mobile telephone , but also increased open-air cinemas.

Also, due to the changes of size and mobility of screens, recipients more oten engage in several activities simultaneoulsy watching a ilm and sending text messages, or tweeting across several screens multi-tasking spectator which results in complex modes of perception and reception of a ilm efect of the second screen. Also important is the change of the regime in which we watch ilms, because ilms we watch on the Internet online, download ; on cable Tv channels prepaid, or pre-ordered ; or on DvD bought or rented can be stopped, paused, rewound or fast- forwarded, or we can change a channel.

From the above-mentioned, one can conclude that the contemporary complexity of ilm perception and reception is afected by the size of the screen from the miniature to colossal , screen mobility from static to moveable ones and screen multiplication.

Masov- na publika, bar onakva kakva je postojala u vreme tradicionalnih medija, pola- ko prelazi u istoriju medijske teorije, a nastupa vreme pojedinca. Plasiran kroz crowdfunding websajt Catarse, O Sujeito misija je opisivana3: Print mediji su u krizi. Novinarstvo nije. Autor projekta je student poslediplomskih studija. Maja Culture and Sustainable Development at Times of Crisis stanu.

Downing, John D. Cambridge: Po- lity Press, London, Polity Press, Cambridge, Wijayananda Jayaweera, what is Community Radio in the 21st Century? A osim toga usmerene su na sasvim drugu ciljnu grupu — omladinu. Popularna muzika je neosporno produkt Osim toga, popularnu muziku prati i publika kao posebna kategorija kojima je muzika namenjena, ali isto tako i festivali i ekonomski efekti koju ta muzika proizvodi.

Londonska grupa he Good, he Bad and he queen su novembra Political Science Kada danas spomenemo nuklearnu energiju ili nuklearne elektrane ret- ko ko za prvu asocijaciju ima jetinu struju ili smanjivanje globalnog zagre- vanja. Ecocriticism and American Popular Music Since Iste U pesmi Meso je ubistvo Meat is murder iz U februaru To je toliko jednostavno Bebe odraslog medveda koje prisustvuju pokolju sopstvenih majki su ostavljene da umru polako i same.

Ali samo jedna budala koja bi je nosila. Mnogo je sigurnije tvrditi — To je samo zabava momci Julian Temple, Odsvirao sam je Miku i pesma mu se svidela. Udarao je ritam prstima. Bukvalno smo poludeli. Bili smo malo ispred globalnog zagrevanja, zar ne? Dakle, strah nije bio bez razloga, a poplave su se ipak dogodile. I poznat nam je verovatni kraj ljud- ske gluposti prema odraslim ljudima. Morrissey Pedelty, Mark , Ecomusicology.

Salewicz, Chris, , Bob Marley. Shuker, Roy , Popular Music. Environmental movements replaced the street as its stage of activities with social networks. Art and culture are becoming eco- logically responsible. Culture becomes a tool and special type of modern pro-environmental activism. In this context, popular mu- sic has its own speciic role.

In the paper, emphasis is given to the study of three eco-political phenomena and their representation in popular music: nuclear energy as energy phenomenon and a threat to peace , animal rights and climate changes. Rana S. Ratna and Awais L. Consequently, what is meant by cultural heritage has inevitably changed over time as well. Once referring exclusively to the monumental remains of cultures, the concept of cultural heritage nowadays encompasses ethnographic and industrial, rural, urban and natural inheritance of a community, divided into several main categories such as cultural heritage tangible: paintings, sculptures, manuscripts, monuments, archaeological sites, underwater ruins, cities, and intangible: oral traditions, performing arts, rituals , natural heritage cultural landscapes, physical, biological or geological formations , as well as the heritage in the event of armed conlict UNESCO.

Focusing not only on the value of cultural heritage itself and how to protect it , but also on the beneits it might bring to a community why to protect it , the Convention considers heritage as part of everyday life, stressing the importance of culture in general as an inseparable component of sustainable development. Soon ater the Brundtland Report was published, it became ap- parent that environmental balance, economic growth and social inclusion, as three dimensions of sustainable development, do not fully correspond to the complexity of contemporary society and trends that afect our lives on a daily basis.

For that reason, an increasing number of researchers around the world have tried to incorporate the notion of culture into this paradigm, placing it as the fourth pillar of sustainable development of a society. For that rea- son, it equally addresses case studies of natural, rural and urban inheritance, as subcategories of cultural heritage and examples of top-down collaboration and bottom-up approach towards achieving sustainability of both cultural heritage and local settings, neighbourhoods and communities.

Although touristic potentials of cultural heritage ability to attract tourists and positive efect that tourism is expected to have on income and employ- ment are usually emphasized as the most evident contributions of culture to the local sustainable development Papageorgiou 28 , the idea behind the case study gives a broader framework, not only for considering culture as a component of sustainable development, but also for discussing the sustainable use of cultural heritage itself.

Conceived as a cooperation between the public sector on one side as the founder of the Museum , and private and civil actors on the other, the EMIV project aimed to create a sustainable model for further balanced devel- opment of the area. Since the locals usually do not perceive heritage as part of their every- day, common life, the idea behind the Project was to invite them re discover it all over again. As a result, being increasingly used by individuals on a daily basis, local cultural and natural heritage has slowly started to become the sup- porting pillar that brings social and economic beneits to the local community.

Such approach is particularly important for the reason that the heritage might become an instrument of exclusion of the local community if not perceived as part of everyday landscape and commonality. Only deeply embedded heritage exercised by the community can become a mechanism of inclusion and thus a precondition for genuine sustainability Fairclough et al.

Considering this, we might say that the EMIV would have represented a non-obligatory agreement based on which the local community would have taken care not only of the territory itself, but of complex layers of cultural, social and environmental values which deine a unique local heritage Maggi 9.

However, despite all the positive impacts of the Project and due to other similar initiatives,7 the City of Kraljevo withdrew from the Project dur- ing the last phase of its implementation. Without this crucial support of local government, the EMIV was never established as a legal entity. Knowing that, in order to be successful, such initiatives need to be sup- ported not only by the community but also by local authorities gob, Druge 52; Papageorgiou 17 , we may conclude that not only that this cuisine and old mills still in use by local inhabitants.

Apart from positive economic change, Agritours have brought positive social impulse as many people returned to their villages so as to start their own businesses. Although the idea of the Eco museum brought together diverse local stakeholders, without the structure and general framework it is highly questionable how long the Project results will last.

Urban heritage beautiication: bottom-up approach aiming towards revitalization and sustainable development Urban heritage is not easy to deine and it is usually identiied as diferent kinds of monuments i. Nev- ertheless, the authors of the text focus on residential areas, everyday life and non-tangible elements which equally represent the urban heritage, but are somehow neglected in academic research.

Nicknamed MoTown or Motor City, Detroit has seen half of its residents moving out in recent years, pushed by the unemployment, unsafe neighbour- hoods and depression that followed the loss of major industries Duperron , leaving behind a huge number of facilities and residential areas as aban- doned urban heritage.

Once a prosper city, Detroit was the very irst American city to ask for a bankruptcy in Now, deterioration, dilapidation and decay seem to be the operative words to depict urban environment, which is nothing but a mirror of the unhealthy state of the City budget. Beyond the economic collapse, this unique tradition of artistic innovations of- fers the foundations for building a sense of common belonging.

From the funk to electronic music, this cultural bubble gave birth to innovative music trends. Culture and Sustainable Development at Times of Crisis to be the symbol of American industrial strength, aiming at bring ing colours and light back in Detroit. Not fully admitted by the local authorities, this action gained momentum and numer- ous artists joined the initiative soon. Challenging the formal codes of artistic expression and its legitimization, the very nature of street art and post-graitti12 have to be tackled in this matter — is it art or vandalism?

Besides, converting streets into open-air contemporary galleries has enabled the emulation among the artists, a condition for creativity and innovation. How- ever, weaknesses have to be highlighted too. Such bottom-up initiatives de- mand a constant dialogue and a perpetual innovation, furthermore, irm and strong organizational plan, which does not seem to be the DBPs main feature.

Although in its essence genuine and communicative, this artistic impulse seen as the human gesture14 is nevertheless intrinsically a source of concerns, threat- ened by its mode of participation. Would the participation come to shrink, the impulse of the Project would be damaged. As a matter of fact, the latter is, if not ruled, at least coordinated by public authorities that tend to be quite reluctant to cooperate with civil- society nebulous projects, dreading slip-ups.

However, the DBP can be considered as a tool for the revitalization of Detroit as it shows to local residents that their city is more than just a harsh example of what a crisis can lead to and constitutes a dynamic artistic bub- ble.

By emphasizing this intangible richness, it creates conditions for social dialogue, community-building and common sense of identity and belonging, leading to an improvement of a daily life, positively mobilizing the popula- tion. Having that in mind, we may say that the DBP operates in the scope of cultural sustainability sphere in which the community involvement is crucial. Closing remarks Based on the referred literature and analysed case studies, certain shared conclusions can be drawn.

To begin with, there is still no precise and common deinition of culture as the fourth pillar of sustainable development. In addi- tion, sustainable development is not a short-term concern of only large cities and urban environment — it should be a long-term process of thinking globally and acting locally, addressing the needs of the population. Furthermore, cul- ture is and should be an important element of sustainable development, active- ly inducing changes.

In accordance with that, we may say that cultural proj- ects have proven to be the most appropriate way to achieve social changes. Finally, we may conclude that the long-term sustainable development occurs as a result only when these conditions are met.

References Bramley, g. Duperron, A. Duxbury, N. Ottawa: Centre on governance, University of Ottawa. Fairclough, g. IV, in print. Commissioned by the Cultural Development Network, Victoria. Mel- bourne: Common ground Publishing. Kyriou, A. Maggi, M. Nadarajah, M. Papageorgiou, F. Rana, Ratna S. Piracha , Cultural Frameworks, in: Urban Cri- sis. Culture and the Sustainability of Cities, edited by M. Reinecke J. One of them surely means that museums now ofer humanistic approach to the understand- ing of people and the world in general, particularly opposed to massive cul- tural industries and cultural tourism.

But, at the same time, museums make an enormous efort to attract visitors and to ind the way to adapt to the so- claimed and needed sustainable development. In that respect, we can speak about the identity — of the object, of the museum, of the community that particular museum belongs to.

Similar examples are numerous for various items, themes, problems, ideas, concepts etc. Obviously, the mu- seums can become the central meeting points and socially involved and impli- cated institutions. My approach to the subject of this international conference will not be the theoretical one, nor based upon the scientiic research with relevant conclu- sions, but written according to the long-lasting work in two major Belgrade museums, as well as connected with my passionate following the local muse- um activities.

I will not discuss new great ideas nor new approaches to the mu- seological problems: I will only try to explain and perhaps ind out — of course, without irm deduction — some of the reasons for serious destruction of the proper notion of major Belgrade museums, claiming at the same time that the situation in other centres — like Novi Sad for example, or in the smaller Serbian towns and cities as well, is diferent, more promising and more positive.

Our, local situation in Belgrade museums belongs to the tragic examples: who can understand why the greatest, the oldest National Museum, founded in , with more than museum items, has been closed for over ten years? Just to remind that in Zagreb new Museum of Contemporary Art has a display of 15 m2 only for the art of the last decades of the 20th and the beginning of the 21st century.

In the era of technological, informational, digital and other contemporary accomplishments, the ideas is to build new Centre for the Promotion of Sci- ence, meant to cost twice as the reconstruction of the National Museum, in spite the fact the existing and very active Science and Technique Museum in Belgrade may be an appropriate place for the promotion of science. In such a situation, it is very diicult to speak about the sustainability. One must ask for the reasons of such situation in Belgrade which is not due only to the actual world, global inancial and consequently local crises, but it can be considered as an almost permanent case; is the reason for that the lack of understanding?

In what sense, one would ask? On what level? What are the reasons? Are there any issues? We can put many relevant questions and the answers will be as articulated and various as the questions are. Namely, one of the most discussed ideas of the new museology — which is almost 30 years old, it means in the age of its maturity — is the changed context in which museum specialists are working now. It is the result of many reasons existing for decades in our country, our society and our muse- um world: we did not understand the importance of the museum institutions at the moment — long ago — when they have become the essence of cultural strategies of modern cultures.

We remained without adequate and appropriate cultural policy, without clear and applicable Law on Culture and particularly without new Law on the Museums, without any strategy and systematic plan- ning for museum developments, without highly qualiied human resources for museum management, and so on. Deiciency of inancial means is the out- come of the lack of awareness and consciousness of the place that museums must have in modern societies. Unlinked activities within one museum provoke lack of activities on other levels — from local to regional, national and international.

If museums do not have the notion of what should be praised as important for public service, they do not ight for those achievements. Like a broken chain — public memory is losing its strength as museums are not very active and conform to the new sensibility of the audience. In that respect, the state and the public care are concentrated only on basic needs and obligations towards museums: nothing additional, new, stimulating.

No state intervention. No public intervention. Silent voices have their price: museums al- most do not exist in public. In general, the result is a lack of interest for the museums in public spaces and in the most frequently used media, and so, gradually, museums are being deprived from their important — if not the privileged position in the society.

Museum directors and curators are silent. Only rare unheard voices, a few texts in journals, sporadic claims in social media. Museums are gradually disappearing from the eyes and ears of general public, including the decision makers; nobody speaks about museums, as if they do not exist in Belgrade. New knowledge, new practices, new needs, new realizations and commu- nicational means thanks to new technologies and digital systems are enriching traditional activities under the condition that all these aspects of new museol- ogy are interconnected with new mental structure and professional interest Deloche : younger generations of managerial museum teams have un- derstood this new kind of activities and procedures and immediately results are evident.

I should also add that the combined inancial resources on the State level as well as from the Provincial government and in certain mea- sure from the local community is beneicial for many museum institutions in the Province of Vojvodina. Substantial changes did not occur for long time in majority of Serbian museums, and this explains the situation irst of all in Belgrade museums, giv- ing wrong signs to other museums in Serbia which are under the supervision of national, central institutions.

Anyhow, thanks to individual initiatives some of our museums have achieved a certain level of their autonomy and conse- quently good results are evident: beside the gallery of Matica srpska, I would mention the City museums in Valjevo, Zrenjanin, Sombor, Subotica, Sirogojno Old Village.

May be some. On this issue there are plenty of studies and books, all having in mind the possible excesses when museum might lose its dignity, and consequently value. Only this kind of diversii- cation in funding may contribute to the healthy and beneiciary position of the museums and their sustainable development.

One must have in mind the variety of possibilities for better museum functioning, including the strategy of cluster associations of museums — on vertical and horizontal levels. Muse- ums may build common strategies and also prepare common programmes aimed at the development of certain branches, as well as the museum world in general. Still, an important aspect of museum identity is not oten mentioned: it is the question of the ethics in the museums which is also contributing to the social position of these institutions, as argued by gari Edson Edson Code of Ethics as edited by ICOM, puts highly museum activities and museum specialists on the social scale, moderating in such a way the values which con- tribute to the museum in general and to the museum staf status too.

ICOM Code of Ethics says that professional norms should be above the personal in- terests, that national and international laws should be respected; no conlict of interests is admitted, permanent education of museum staf is required, re- sponsibility and self-evaluation is expected regularly, strategic planning must be adapted to given conditions, preventive protection for any kind of collec- tion is a must for all the museums in the world etc.

And above all — museum staf must be liable to answer for the sustainable development having in mind future gen- erations of visitors and beneiciaries to whom we have — not only material, but moral obligation too. Maybe — irst of all, moral obligation and responsibility.

Edson, gari ed. Ka savremenom muzeju, od teorije do prakse, Valjevo: Narodni muzej. Marstine, Janet ed. An Introduction, Black- well Publishing. U Kotoru Po odluci Vlade Narodne Republike Crne gore, Ali ne samo za njega, jer tek nakon Kroz proces redeinisanja nacionalnih kulturnih politika u evropskom kontekstu relativizovana je domi- nacija i reprezentacija pojma nacionalna kultura. Tako je, recimo, tek Uzorni model ipak je nastao u Austro-Ugarskoj monarhiji: Burgteatar je osnovan U Crnoj gori Potrebno je zaustaviti se na sistemu, a primaran sistem za analizu jeste gradski teatarski sistem.

Svaki repertoar predstavlja i liniju odbrane, na kojoj se branite i sa koje treba da se branite. Borba neprestana! Additionally, the paper ofers a personal view of and experience in the programming policy of the Montenegrin National heatre and its distinct fea- tures in the contemporary context.

Foreword In , in Serbia, there were approximately museums, mostly pub- lic, suported by the Serbian government, the province of Vojvodina, cities or municipalities i. During the s, all of them have passed through the dif- icult period of general social pauperization and stagnation, as well as through dramatic and frustrating processes of social and political changes.

On all levels of the structure, the public institutions have been submitted to oten violent shits that demanded instantaneous changes and policy adaptability. Museums were surviving both inner and outer isolation: they were losing more and more connection with the society and its needs — their prime reason of existence; they were far from the international networks, projects and partnerships.

Unfortunately, the position of the museums in Serbia is not very diferent even today, in Even though the last ten years all the media discuss on the cen- tral building reconstruction of this museum as the main problem for the pres- ent and future functioning, in the 21st century, when the humankind is every now and then inventing new technologies and using virtual space and various media to communicate, this institution has a lot of potentials for its activities, image building and identity branding to be publicly known and to be a plat- form for critical observation and education on heritage it preserves to public, even in the period when its central building is closed.

Museum Image Building and Identity Branding If we would like to ofer one particular deinition of the terms brand and image building, we must say that there is no such; these terms are mostly con- sidered as a concept, feeling, life style, the main sense of the contemporary 1 he term museology, and therefore the term new museology, is perceived diferently in diferent geographical contexts.

Commune methodological position of all these attempts is the idea that the museum and the museum praxes have surpassed museo- graphy, i. Brands are promises. Roland Bart gives his analysis of the image basing it on already existing semiotic models of communication, developed by Charles Sanders and Umberto Eco.

Bart Brand takes the place of the mental image. Bart concludes that there are three messages, or three levels of the communication in every branding, and that is: linguistic, iconic coded and iconic non-coded message. Visual identity of the brand is composed of logotypes, selection of colors, design etc. Branding is more than trend; it is a part of ideology. Wallace 37 A museum needs an image, which is how others perceive its identity and which helps in creating reputation.

In , the National Museum which would represent develop- ment of culture on our soil from the oldest days until now, moved in its current central building, built in for the needs of Investment Bank. Nearly 50 years later, the condition of this ediice and basic conditions necessary for long-term preservation and adequate display of Museum arti- facts have become alarmingly bad. As it is stated at the current oicial web site of the National Museum, during this period the Museum did preparations for the relocation of collec- tions, which included inspection and bar-coding of all the Museum collec- tions.

However, the relocation, as a basic precondition for the beginning of construction, was not realized. Finally, during , ater it was determined that the possibilities and conditions have been signiicantly altered since , the government of the Republic of Serbia decided to abandon there- construction-project and take new measures regarding the reconstruction of the National Museum ediice.

In November , architect Vladimir Lojanica, was selected as the competition winner. Now, 35 years later, I know how the Museum lives and I am observing every inch of it from then on, especially a great devastation and the loss of everything Museum survived in the 90s.

In we were already speaking about the necessity of reconstruction, team work did not exist at the time, department for education was based on one single person, while there was no hygienic paper in toilets. We have never had the idea of a building, but of the location. It is then a question, how did the National Museum of Belgrade use its location in the very center of the capital?

Is there any co- herency between these exhibitions when it comes to design, font used for leg- ends, and temporary programs of the National Museum taking place in these spaces? National Museum: Museum Transformation When it comes to the observation of annual reports from to , there is no clear image of what the Museum wants to stress out when it comes to the selection of temporary exhibitions and there is either clear visual iden- tity representation set on all levels and in all museum departments in Ser- bia previously mentioned.

It is also interesting to mention that these goals, even if they are not fulilled completely, do not exist in the annual reports ater , when actually the Museum faced his irst grand problems with the building reconstruction plan.

With time, the atmosphere in which we all are happy in expectation of the new space where everything will function better, unfortu- nately disappeared. Today, it is being spoken about sanitation of the building. It is then a question — why this building has kept its doors closed for the whole decade if it was just about physical adaptation, and a bit rhetoric question if this physical sanitation then means complete giving up the idea of transfor- mation from one hermetic and hierarchical institution to a new, critical and modern museum with an image of communicative, transparent and interac- tive cultural institution?

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